Integrated Land Management Institute (ILMI)

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    Social meaning and material constraints of land scarcity in Northern Namibia (ILMI Working Paper No. 13)
    (Integrated Land Management Institute, Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2021-03) Bloemertz, Lena; Nghitevelekwa, Romie; Prudat, Brice; Weidmann, Laura; Dobler, Gregor; Graefe, Olivier; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.
    The paper scrutinizes perceptions of and discourses about scarcity of land in northern Namibia in order to show the multiple meanings that land has for the population. It is based on two years of fieldwork, and brings together interdisciplinary perspectives on why people argue that land is scare. Our research contributes to a better understanding of the meaning of land in a rapidly changing setting, in which demands for land are changing and diversified. Furthermore, new land uses have come into play, and subsistence agriculture is no longer the mainstay of livelihoods, but one of the many sources. We argue for a more nuanced concept of scarcity of land, in order to acknowledge the different meanings of access to land to different people and to improve land policies.
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    Livelihood needs for Namibia’s urban future’: A seminar series with John Mendelsohn
    (Integrated Land Management Institute, 2019-11) Mendelsohn, John
    This Document Note presents the discussions that took place during three seminars with John Mendelsohn on the issue of livelihood needs for Namibia’s urban future. The first seminar focused on the topic of “‘Traditional’ and ‘modern’ forms of capital and security: value production and circulation” and took place along with the final presentations of the first year of the master in architecture at NUST; the second focused on the issue of “Land as capital and foundation: opportunities and limitations of empowerment of the poor”, and included a visit to the land developed by the Dibasen Homeless Committee of Katutura; and the final one focused on “The question of ‘the informal’: engaging with the ‘formal’ economic and labour outlook in Namibia” and took place at Oshetu Market, including input from the market managers. This document describes the main points of the seminars, the discussions, and notes on the accompanying activities. The event took place in the context of the Urban Forum, which is a platform for multi-stakeholder engagement on issues of urbanisation in Namibia, Southern Africa and beyond.
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    New Livelihoods for Namibia’s Urban Future: Workshop with Prof James Ferguson
    (Integrated Land Management Institute, 2019-10) ILMI
    This Document Note documents the activities during the workshop held with Prof. James Ferguson in August 12-15, 2019 at NUST. The workshop took place in the context of the Urban Forum programme 2019-2020. The Urban Forum is a platform for multi-stakeholder engagement on issues of urbanisation in Namibia, Southern Africa and beyond. This document describes the rationale for the programme of the workshop, and then briefly summarizes the highlights of each of the sessions, and concludes with the key questions that emerged from the workshop. These themes provide the basis for a research agenda on questions of livelihoods for Namibia’s urban future. and concludes with the key questions that emerged from the workshop. These themes provide the basis for a research agenda on questions of livelihoods for Namibia’s urban future.
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    Seven Ideas for Informal Settlement Upgrading in Namibia: Practical and implementable insights based on the SDI-UPFI High Level Roundtable, February 2019
    (Integrated Land Management Institute and ONE Economy Foundation, 2019-07) ILMI, ONE Economy Foundation
    The following points are a synthesis of the ideas that transpired from the Shack/Slum Dwellers International and Urban Poor Fund International (SDI-UPFI) High Level Roundtable that took place at State House on February 14th, 2019. The session benefitted with inputs from local Namibian experts and stakeholders, as well as regional and international experts including Jane Weru, Executive Director Akiba Mashinani Trust (Kenya); Dr. Beth Chitekwe-Biti, Deputy Manager SDI, Former Director of Dialogue on Shelter (Zimbabwe); Rose Molokoane, Chairperson Shack Dwellers International (South Africa); and Kilion Nyambuga, Programme Officer, SDI Kenya (Kenya). The session also included the participation of a delegation of stakeholders from Liberia, led by Hon. Paulita C.C. Wie, Deputy Minister of Urban Affairs at the Ministry of Internal Affairs. This paper further relies on two documents: “Unique Challenges faced by the youth in informal settlements”, a report by the #BeFree Programme in Informal Settlements; and “Urban Land Reform in Namibia: Getting Ready for Namibia’s Urban Future”, a policy brief for the Second National Land Conference1 . All other references are indicated in footnotes.The paper is co-developed by the Office of the First Lady, Republic of Namibia, and Guillermo Delgado at the Integrated Land Management Institute (ILMI) at the Namibia University of Science and Technology.
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    Planned layouts v. ‘Planning for slums’: The case of Rehoboth Ext. 5 & 6
    (Integrated Land Management Institute, 2016-10) Esterhuizen, Louis
    The project in question refers to the case of 'Ext.5 & 6' in Rehoboth, in which the speaker took part as employee of the town and regional planning consultancy office that undertook the assignment. The aim was to provide a formal layout to an informal settlement East of Rehoboth in the quickest way possible. The case shows some of the challenges that are faced in the process of formalisation when the goal is to provide a planned plot for dignified living low-income vis-a-vis the full land delivery process from surveying to proclamation.
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    Ecosystem services and small-holder farming practices -between payments, development support and right- an integrated approach (ILMI Working paper 10)
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, Integrated Land Management Institute, 2018-08) Bloemertz, Lena; Naanda, Martha; Wingate, Vladimir; Angombe, Simon; Kuhn, Nikolaus
    Small-scale farmers in north-central Namibia face numerous challenges, ranging from low crop yields, high rainfall variability and land degradation which is threatening the long-term productivity of the land, to social changes that are reducing the work force available for farming. This paper aims to assess existing land use practices (LUPs) and to determine their relationship to ecosystem services (ES). As agriculture (crop and livestock farming) is the dominant land use in northern Namibia, it is the main driver influencing environmental services and will be in the focus here. We suggest ways of combining an improvement of provisioning services (especially food production and thus livelihoods of small-scale farmers) together with regulating services (e.g. climate regulation through carbon storage and soil fertility conservation) to create multiple benefits at the landscape level. In addition to identifying suitable LUPs, we argue that any activity trying to improve ES should count on the already existing initiatives and interventions and look for synergies and complementarities.
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    Informal settlements
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, Integrated Land Management Institute, 2018) Muller, Anna
    Namibia is moving towards an urbanised country. This is illustrated by the fact that at independence Namibia was only 28% urbanized by 2011 urbanization has already grown to 42% and current projections are that by 2020 urbanization would by 66% and more than 70% by 2030. As the urban population is growing the need for serviced land and housing is also growing. As Namibia has failed to respond through appropriate strategies to facilitate this change in the human geography of the country it resulted in the growth of poorly serviced informal settlements. These settlements are often far from jobs, services and social and economic amenities thus further increasing poverty level in the urban areas.
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    Communal land
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, Integrated Land Management Institute, 2018) Nghitevelekwa, Romie
    Communal land is one of the land tenure systems in Namibia, the other being freehold land tenure system. At independence in 1990,Namibia resolved to retain communal land on the basis that majority of the population derived their livelihoods from communal land.Notwithstanding the increasing urban population in the country since independence, the majority of the Namibian population still lives in the communal areas, and many of the urban-based population continue to have close relations in rural areas. Similarly, while sources of livelihoods in the communal areas have been diversified, communal land continues to serve as an important basis of people’s livelihoods.
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    Urban land delivery
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, Integrated Land Management Institute, 2018) Mendelsohn, Martin
    There has been rapid growth in urban populations in Namibia (Pendleton et al, 2014). This growth is amongst predominantly amongst less educated, poorer migrants from rural areas in search of opportunities in urban areas. From the data available the estimated shortfall of either titled land or houses appears to be above 150 000 and increasing at about 11 000 per year (Weber, 2017). This trend of urbanisation is occurring not only in Namibia but across the world, particularly now in developing countries. Continued urban migration should be encouraged, as even though new urban migrants are poor, by and large their lives are better in urban areas. However, the delivery of titled land in urban areas in Namibia has been hamstrung by several legislative and regulatory procedures with a number of negative consequences (De Vries, 2009).
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    Housing in Namibia: The challenges and prospects for adequate future provision
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, Integrated Land Management Institute, 2018-05) Chiripanhura, Blessing M.
    The current paper derives from work conducted in the context of the Revision of the Mass Housing Development Programme (MHDP) that the Ministry of Urban and Rural Development (MURD) commissioned to the Integrated Land Management Institute (ILMI) at the Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST). The paper contains only publicly-available information and was prepared for public dissemination of issues related to the work undertaken for the Ministry in the context of this project.
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    The role of universities in participatory informal settlement upgrading: experiences from Kenya, Namibia, Uganda, and Zambia.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, Integrated Land Management Institute, 2017-07) Guillermo, Delgado
    This document is a report on the session that focused on the role of universities in participatory informal settlement upgrading at the workshop titled "Bottom-up city Wide planning in Gobabis", which took place on 11-13 May 2017, in Gobabis. The event was convened by the Namibia Housing Action Group (NHAG) and the Shack Dwellers Federation, with support from Shack Dwellers International (SDI). Participants included the Namibia University of Science and TEchnology (NUST), the Municipality of Gobabis, the Ministry of Urban and Rural DEvelopment (MURD), and members from the frederation as well; as represntatives fom homologous institutions from Zambia, Kenya and Uganda.
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    Leasehold as a Vehicle for Economic Development
    (2017-03) Werner, Wolfgang; Bayer, Charl-Thom H.
    Secure tenure and registered land rights are widely believed to be necessary for access to credit, well functioning land markets and economic development. As a result Namibia introduced long term leasehold rights over communal and commercial land for resettlement purposes in order to address preindependence imbalances in land holdings. The purpose is to bring the resettled beneficiaries into the mainstream of the economy, but this has not happened. The research analysed the institutional framework for resettlement allocations and the transaction costs in order to understand the impact of leaseholds on the beneficiaries ability to access credit and mobilise investments. The findings suggest that the transaction cost were low when compared with similar transaction internationally, but high in comparison with the production value of the parcels of land. The lack of resources available to the beneficiaries and their resultant inability to service loans is a major contributor to the lack of economic development. Poor access to information on the registration requirements for leases, combined with the requirements from financial institutions and the lack of a market for leasehold rights meant that beneficiaries are not able to register their leases in order participate meaningfully in economic development.
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    The new Flexible Land Tenure Act: an update.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, Integrated Land Management Institute, 2015-10) Christensen, Åse
    The Flexible Land Tenure (FLT) system was developed by the Ministry of Lands and Resettlement and the discussions started in the period of 1992-1998. It was conceived as an alternative for the land tenure catering for low income groups. The act passed in 2012, and currently the regulations are being revised for approval.
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    The Flexible Land Tenure System in the Context of the Sustainable Development Goals
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, Integrated Land Management Institute, 2017-04) Christensen, Åse
    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the Flexible Land Tenure System (FLTS) in Namibia is in line with the Fit-For-Purpose (FFP) land administration approach which is developed in order to implement the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at national and local level in developing countries by providing tenure security to poor people and creating country-wide land recordation systems. The FFP approach is based on a Minimum Viable Product focusing on the specific local tenure security needs, flexibility on survey accuracy, legal and institutional frameworks and an incremental improvement as a foundation for further development. The study is based on a literature study of the SDGs, the FFP approach and the FLTS in Namibia. The literature study is based on contemporary theories on land administration and how access to tenure security can contribute to poverty alleviation. The study indicates that certain elements of the FLTS are complying with the characteristics of the FFP approach and thus has potential to contribute to fulfilling the SDGs in Namibia. There is however a need for further in-depth academic research.
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    Land Delivery to the Urban Poor. Case study of Lux Development Project Nam/343: Realities, opportunities, possibilities, synergies
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, Integrated Land Management Institute, 2016-07) Lewis, Joe
    The project took place in Katima Mulilo and Rundu during 2007-11. The project consisted of 66 township extensions, and resulted in 18,500 plots developed in a period of 5 years. The project was funded by LUX Development, the cooperation agency from Luxemburg, which poured significant funds to make the project possible. One of the innovation aspects was to do the topographic and cadastral mapping in parallel with the layout and design. This was done by teams consisting of a town planner, a surveyor , and community facilitators selected by the inhabitants of the settlement in question.
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    The proposed new Urban and Regional Planning Bill: an appraisal.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, Integrated Land Management Institute, 2015-10) Genis, Pieter
    The Bill aimed at overriding old ordinances that dated back to the 1950s and 60s. The main objective of the Bill is that of decentralisation, and has three main points: the establishment of "authorized planning authorities" (APA); the consolidation of Townships Board and the Namibia Planning Advisory Board (NAMPAB) into one Urban and Regional Planning Board; and long term spatial development frameworks by means of a structure plan at all levels: national, regional, and urban.
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    Participatory land delivery processes in Gobabis: the case of Freedom Square.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, Integrated Land Management Institute, 2016-08) Harris, Braam
    The project in question refers to the case of 'Freedom Square' in Gobabis, which is a cooperation between the Municipality of Gobabis and the Shack Dwellers Federation of Namibia (SDFN), the Namibia Housing Action Group (NHAG), the Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST), and other international parties. The project is motivated by an agenda of 'inclusive cities': through close collaboration with existing residents in the area, the process of land delivery is expedited and turned into an exercise of making inhabitants drivers in the improvement of living conditions.
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    The Case for Adequate Housing for Teachers in Windhoek
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, Integrated Land Management Institute, 2016-07) Guillermo, Delgado; Lühl, Phillip
    The initiative to investigate the housing situation of teachers in Namibia was triggered by teacher Gertrude Mujoro, who discussed the matter with her fellow colleagues who brought the matter to the attention of the leadership of the Teachers Union of Namibia (TUN). In 2014 the Trade Union Congress of Namibia (TUCNA), the umbrella federation that TUN belongs to, developed a document titled “TUCNA Development Policy Proposals” (TUCNA, 2014), which contains a section on housing. In line with this mandate, Mahongora Kavihuha, Secretary General of TUN and TUCNA, approached the Integrated Land Management Institute (ILMI) at the Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST), to establish an open collaboration around the topic. As a result, a series of workshops and discussions between teachers and ILMI staff were held to explore housing possibilities for teachers in Namibia.
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    Applying a Problem Based Learning Approach to Land Management Education:The case of Aalborg University, Denmark
    (2016) Enemark, Stig
    This paper is work in progress and draws from previous research. The paper supports the lecture on Problem Based Learning given at the Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST) on 3 March 2016.