Theses and Dissertations

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 38
  • Item
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2023-05-04) KADHIKWA, SAKEUS IITA.
    Internal communication has long been the lifeblood of successfully and effectively managed organizations, especially when such communication is strategically managed. Though literature has established the benefits of internal communication, especially when it comes to employee engagement, commitment, and improved corporate reputation, research assessing the strategic role of internal communication in government departments is limited. The aim of the study was to assess the strategic role of internal communication at the Ministry of Home Affairs, Immigration, Safety and Security in Namibia. To achieve this objective, four secondary objectives were pursued. The first secondary objective focused on examining the challenges faced by the Department of Home Affairs and Immigration in implementing the internal communication strategy. The second objective focused on analyzing the impact of internal communication on service delivery, while the third focused on internal communication and employee morale. The last objective examined the alignment between internal communication and the department’s strategy. Data for the study were collected using a structured interview guide. Face-to-face online were conducted with a conveniently selected sample of 25 participants. The methodology that was employed was a qualitative research approach that followed a case study research design. Several challenges affecting the effective implementation of the internal communication strategy were identified. Furthermore, it was noted that participants had mixed views about the role of internal communication and service delivery, as well as its strategic role in the organization. Based on these findings, the study makes recommendations and suggestions for future research.
  • Item
    The phrase Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) also known as Dual-Use Devices is a mutual practice which has increased employees’ access to new mobile technologies and a rising trend within many organisations. The concept refers to employers allowing their employees to bring their personal mobile devices to workplaces and use them as their workstations. Enterprises are enjoying the benefits of BYOD, which allows them to cut operational costs as they do not need to purchase computers for their employees. Employees are enjoying the comfort and convenience offered by BYOD; however, this exposes organisations to security breaches. There is currently a lack of security awareness among mobile device users within enterprises against BYOD cyber threats. The situation has made it difficult for organisations to monitor the usage of resources among the mobile users towards protecting the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of corporate data. Moreover, cyber attackers see more potential with mobile devices as company and personal data get mixed up on such devices. Although the BYOD concept has not been formally implemented within the enterprise, it does not mean that the enterprise data is not prone to attackers. This study presents a BYOD Security Awareness Model designed following Design Science Research methods based on findings of a single case study conducted in one of the enterprises in Windhoek, Namibia. Qualitative research following the interpretivism philosophy was used. To select participants, purposeful random sampling method was used for this study. Data was collected using interviews, a questionnaire and through literature review. Furthermore, the study implemented the qualitative content analysis as the data analysis technique. The study identified malware and network spoofing as some of the BYOD related threats affecting the case enterprise. The researcher observed lack of end user awareness on BYOD security as a cause of BYOD related security threats. The study identified four main components of the model namely: BYOD threats, security awareness, policy and access control. The BYOD security awareness model will be a guideline to Namibian enterprises in creating BYOD security awareness among their mobile devices with the aim to safeguard the organisational data. Furthermore, the findings will also contribute to the new technology horizon of Namibia’s future BYOD security awareness by motivating enterprises to implement mechanisms that will protect the enterprise confidential information. Since Namibia is reported as one of the least ranked countries in Africa in terms of cyber security, the model is a guideline on how enterprises can create BYOD security awareness among users within their enterprises and improve their security posture as well as that of the nation. Additionally, the model will also contribute to the BYOD security awareness knowledge to researchers and practitioners through conference papers and thesis publication.
  • Item
    Efficient hybrid deep reinforcement learning mechanism for distributed denial of service attack detection in software defined networks
    The Internet architecture remains fixed since its invention but the Software Defined Network (SDN) comes with more flexibility, innovation, and programmability aspects being a very promising network architecture. However, the centralized control architecture in SDN represents a single point of failure. This vulnerability is prone to Distributed Denial of Service attack (DDoS) which remains a common and sophisticated attack on computer networks. With the controller faced with DDoS attacks while already overloaded with decision making, it raises a major security concern for SDN and therefore necessitates an efficient DDoS attack detection mechanism. This study aimed at designing a mechanism that accurately detects DDoS attacks while using minimum computational resources. We introduced a Hybrid Deep Reinforcement Learning Mechanism (HDRLM) for the SDN at the controller. An evaluation of literature was conducted to identify DRL algorithms that are accurate at the same time efficient. Double Deep Q-Network and Deep Q Network (DQN) were identified, and Deep Q-Network (DQN) was adopted in the study. To confirm the performance, simulated experimentation was used. Using the Design Science approach, a hybrid mechanism using the Deep Q Network algorithm that combines two different Deep Learning Neural networks for value approximation was designed. The HDRLM was demonstrated through experimentation in which the CICIDS2017 dataset was used to train and evaluate its performance. Detection accuracy of 98.16% was obtained and an 8% on CPU usage during detection, an improvement of the resource usage of the state-of-the-art detection mechanism. A positive upward trajectory of the accumulated rewards demonstrated that the mechanism was able to learn the environment by itself. Despite not achieving the highest accuracy, the HDRLM achieved a reasonably higher detection rate without consuming more computational resources compared to available mechanisms. This study provides a mechanism and an approach to designing mechanisms that reduce the cost of detection
  • Item
    Media plays a central role in communicating risks to the public during outbreaks of infectious diseases. Since Covid-19 was first discovered, media has played a critical role in providing health information and people have relied on the media for information about Covid-19. While much of what the public knows about COVID-19 and ways to prevent infection has come through various media platforms, the framing or how such messages were presented, to some extent, influenced public’s understanding, perception and behaviours in light of the pandemic. The aim of this study was to determine how newspapers in Namibia reported on the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of three (3) national daily newspapers were selected for the study namely, The Namibian, New Era and Namibian Sun newspapers. The study was anchored on the framing theory and a qualitative research design was used for the study. The study focused on selected articles which were written between 13 March 2020 and 31 December 2020. Findings of the study reveal that newspapers used different frames to report on COVID-19. Specifically, the frames that were employed by the Namibian print media include, among others, the alarming frame, the social frame, the recovery and the assurance frame. It was found that newspapers mainly utilised war terminology and pessimistic language in their reporting. The themes that emerged in the framing of the COVID-19 pandemic focused on crime-related issues, the impact of the pandemic and the medical-related issues. The study argues that media frames, which were used by the three newspapers can influence public’s understanding and response to Covid-19 interventions. It is therefore imperative for the media to consider the frames or ways in which messages are packaged as frames of media messages could have serious implications on how messages are received and acted upon.
  • Item
    This study investigated how cartoon message interpretation on Covid-19 influenced learners understanding and dealing with the Covid-19 pandemic and to establish learners’ knowledge of Covid-19 and exposure to Covid-19 cartoon messages. The study also sought to assess how Covid-19 cartoon messages influenced learners’ perception towards observing Covid 19 protocols. To investigate how cartoon message interpretation on Covid-19 influenced learners understanding and dealing with the Covid-19 pandemic, the research used the qualitative approach. A non-probability purposive sampling technique was employed intending to get information from 18 learners at Highlands Christian School. Data was collected through focus group discussions and recorded with the aid of a mobile device to record primary data as voice data and was transcribed data to verbatim. The researcher used a reductionist approach in that only summaries of responses were put into text and tabulated making use of the thematic analysis approach. The study revealed that all learners were aware of Covid-19 and what it entails through the word of mouth from parents and teachers at school, news, radio. Some leaners knowledge was acquired through watching Covid-19 cartoon messages on Namibian Broadcast and Corporation and YouTube channels. The majority of learners interpreted the cartoon messages they watched as intended by the producer. They found the videos useful, informative, interesting and educational. However, a smaller number of learners found the videos to be repetitive and lack adequate information they need. The findings from the study also revealed that Covid-19 cartoon messages influenced learners into changing their perceptions about Covid-19 and observing Covid-19 protocol. As a result, the study then recommended that the government of Namibia need to create effective, interesting, engaging, age appropriate and culturally sensitive content that will be disseminated to all urban and village learners. The cartoon videos should also be translated into several languages.
  • Item
    Investigating Stakeholder Engagement in Public Relations Practices of two Namibian Universities (The International University of Management and Namibia University of Science and Technology
    The purpose of the study was to establish the effectiveness of Public Relations Departments of IUM and NUST in stakeholder engagement. The main objective was to investigate the extent of stakeholder engagement by IUM and NUST’s public relations departments. The study was qualitative, with a population of all universities in Namibia. Purposive sampling was used to select two Universities namely IUM and NUST. Represented by the Marketing and Communication Department at NUST and the Marketing, Communication and Stakeholders Engagement Department at IUM. Interview guides were used to collect data. The findings of the study indicated that PRO’s roles are innumerable for each organisation but the most common areas are dealing with media, stakeholders and marketing the institution’s brand through event planning and social media as well as maintaining the image and reputation of the two Universities. It was also indicated that Public Relations Departments are of benefit to stakeholders of the two Universities because they act as custodians of the universities' brand and ensure that the institution's images are well positioned in the public eye. They are also the ears and eyes on the ground. Based on these findings, the following recommendations were made: Email and social media platforms are the most preferred forms of communication among the two Universities. The academic staff and the university management in general of the two universities need to take advantage of this, to make use of email and social media platforms to engage and preserve relationships with their stakeholders. The study also noted that to keep the effectiveness of the PRO of the two universities each communicated message should be carefully crafted for the various audiences to ensure maximum engagement. Information should also be made simple, summarizing the programs they offer to make it easier for the learners to understand.In managing stakeholders of the two Namibian universities, PRO’s of the two Namibian Universities should always fulfil their promises to their stakeholders as they are nothing without their stakeholders and always give correct information to meet stakeholder’s needs.
  • Item
    Social media have a significant role as a communication tool used by public relations practitioners in disseminating and sharing information as well as obtaining feedback from clients. When used effectively as a communication tool, social media can help address complaints, do market research to identify the needs of the clients and can help any organisation identify new market niches. Despite the essential role of social media, many organisations, including Government Institution Pension Fund (GIPF) Namibia are still not using social media to their maximum and are still opting for traditional methods of communication by the public relations practitioners. This study was conducted using a mixed-method approach. This study assessed the use of social media in public relations practices of the GIPF. The study adopted a quantitative approach, using a case study research design. The study population comprised GIPF staff members and clients. Hence, the sample consisted of 200 participants. A convenient sampling method was used to select a sample. A structured questionnaire with mixed questions collected both qualitative and quantitative data. The major findings of the study were that social media has a great impact on public relations practices and traditional social media platforms, notably Facebook, Instagram and Twitter remained popular. The recommendations were based on the research findings. Hence, the study recommends that various strategies can be used to enhance social media use and visibility. It was also recommended that public relations practitioners should be trained so that their awareness and use of social media is improved.
  • Item
    This qualitative study examined ethical issues confronting operations of selected hybrid media organisations in the digital age in Namibia. It specifically used the cases of Namibia Media Holdings and The Namibia, which are the biggest hybrid media organisations in Namibia in terms of readership and circulation thus far. The overall research question was: what contextual factors have shaped ethical dilemmas experienced by full-time journalists and news editors working for the Namibia Media Holdings (NMH) and The Namibian? It located itself with the interpretivism philosophical underpinning, in which a case study research design was used to as it provides room for observing multiple actors within specific contextual parameters. A total of sixteen (16) full-time employed journalists and five (5) news editors were selected using purposive sampling technique. Qualitative data were collected through the administration of focus group discussions and interviews. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data, in which emerging themes were categorised, labelled and interpreted in response to each research question. Key findings indicate that a number of contextual factors responsible for shaping ethical dilemmas encountered by professional journalists working for selected hybrid media organisations in the digital age in Namibia. These include: the ever-changing technological landscape; the immediacy of internet; media sustainability; the integration of social media platforms in the news work; the absence of specific ethical framework for hybrid media organisations; conflicts of interest; and the notion of public interest. It came out clear that traditional media ethics such as accuracy, truthfulness and impartiality are still relevant to inform operations of hybrid newsrooms and are also cornerstones without, which there is no professional journalism. In order to inform the operations of hybrid media organisations in the digital age in Namibia, the following media accountability ethical frameworks and policies were cited: revision of the Code of Ethics for the Namibian Print, Broadcast and Online Media; strengthening of digital fact-checking mechanisms; and additional journalistic training.
  • Item
    Using case studies of The Namibian, New Era and Confidente newspapers, this study set out to investigate the implications of Covid-19 on the sustainability of Namibian newspapers, measures being employed by these newspapers to respond to these influences, and whether these measures are helping the three newspapers sustain their operations. To do this, the study draws on the theory of structuration and the concept of media sustainability. Informed by the interpretivist paradigm, this study applied a qualitative methodology and purposefully sampled 21 participants which included an editor, marketing manager and distribution manager, as well four journalists from each of the three newspapers. In-depth interviews were conducted with the participants by the researcher. The study found that Covid-19 has adversely impacted the operations of the newspapers studied, with declining advertising, copy sales, job losses and reconfiguration of news work in both production and distribution. This has prompted the newspapers to respond by adopting a myriad of measures which include retrenchments, salary cuts, reduced employee benefits, salary payment date changes, and reducing both print runs and the number of pages. They have also resorted to expanding their operational scope by bidding for printing jobs, as well as to write Annual Reports for corporates. Apart from attempting to deepen stories to escape online competition, newspapers are also now using digital platforms to generate interest for their print editions by sharing snippets of articles on social media prior to publication of fuller articles in the print edition. Further, the study also observed that the newspapers have resorted to giving clients advertising discounts in order to keep them engaged with their print editions. All the three newspapers have developed packages that include digital platforms to further lure clients amid Covid-19. Lastly, the study revealed that journalists are responding to slimmer staff complements, induced by Covid-19, through up-skilling. While the acknowledgement that newspapers will cease to exist at one point is unanimous, the study notes that this can be either delayed or derailed by Namibian newspapers in changing the way stories are told, deepening coverage of community stories and seeking cost-cutting interventions from the government, among others. In summation, the study concludes that despite the pressures presented by Covid-19 in Namibia, the printed newspaper remains resilient, owing to specific market dynamics unique to Namibia.
  • Item
    The purpose of the study was to examine stakeholders’ views particularly the views of print media members on the implications of the delayed enactment of the Access to Information Bill on media reporting in Namibia. The main objective of the study was, to examine stakeholders’ views on the implications of the delayed enactment of the Access to Information Bill on media reporting in Namibia. The Social Responsibility theory was underpinned for this study to provide clarity on media mode of operandi from various scholars’ perspective. The methodology used to collect data was qualitative, with a targeted population of at least 100 three print media houses journalists and editors. A purposive sampling strategy was employed to select 7 journalists and one editor from 3 different print media (The Nambian, Namibian Sun and New Era). Data was collected by interviewing the sampled participants. The main findings of the study indicated that the Access to Information Bill has an impact on access and availability of information to journalists. It was found that several provisions within the Act on restrictions to information classified by the state contradict the ratifications to which Namibia is a signatory and also the right of every Namibian in the Constitution whereby Article 21 (1990) of the Namibian Constitution, states that “All persons shall have the right to; freedom of speech and expression, which shall include freedom of the press and other media.” Although the state within the same constitution is provided reasonable grounds for national security not to disclose classified information, participants are of the view that the state deliberately freezes information that perhaps they think will damage the reputations of the institutions if they are to be released to the media. Journalists sometimes work in environments where they are treated unfairly in particular the private media versus the state media given preferential treatment while the private media is denied access to the same venue where a press conference is taking place. One of the findings of the study was that there is no media freedom in Namibia, due to the absence of laws that promote freedom and access at the same time. Another finding point to the state which has a moral obligation to make sure that information dissemination and access to information which are basic Constitutional rights are maintained but media freedom is restrained by censorship, as such the state should speedily pass the ii Access to Information Bill into a law whereby the journalists' Modus Operandi will be facilitated through the same laws. Several recommendations were made including abolishing of outdated laws. In line with the findings, the legislators must set timelines and commit to meet each deadline, industry stakeholders must be consulted to commonly decide which laws or aspects of it must be repealed, consult their industry and consider their views and inputs. Similarly, it was found that unfair treatment of journalists and harassment with litigation on publishing information rightfully gained make the legislative environment toxic, therefore it is recommended that the legislative environment should be proactive and not reactive, laws affecting bread and butter issues and quality of life for now and the future should be prioritized, new laws should be promulgated. Last but not least in line with the objective of the legislative environment, the justice ministry should ensure they provide a portal that will provide court rolls and case appeals; however, it needs to be more frequently updated as well as promoted.
  • Item
    An investigation into how the Namibian print media industry is coping with contemporary economic conditions.
    This study provides an investigation into how Namibia’s print media industry is surviving under the current economic crisis, which has been affecting the country since 2016. This is done, firstly through examining how global media has been faring when their respective countries are suffering from an economic crisis. The examination revealed that newspapers operating in these countries are struggling and their existence is being threatened. The verdict is the same with the newspapers in Africa, whose sustainability is being intimidated by the economic crisis. In Namibia, print media newspapers are looking at new sustainable models to survive the economic recession. Just like globally and continentally, the sustainability of Namibia’s print media newspaper industry is being threatened by the Coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic, which has killed millions of people and forced businesses to close since 2020. In order to collect data, the researcher employed document analysis, semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Using the interpretivism paradigm as a qualitative methodology, the study relied upon both the trained researcher and the human subject as the instruments to measure some phenomena, and typically involves both observation and interviews. Six newspapers namely: The Namibian, Namibian Sun, New Era, The Southern Times, Windhoek Observer and the Confidente were purposely selected. At least 16 people from these newspapers were thoroughly interviewed. For these newspapers, it was ‘business as usual’ until their operations encountered an economic crisis in 2016. Their normal operations were further dented when the Coronavirus (Covid-19) crippled the global economy from early 2020. This study was informed by three interlinked sub-research objectives. These are: to examine how the print media has been affected by the current economic challenges; to investigate the coping mechanisms put in place by the print media in Namibia and to explore new business models emerging in Namibia’s print media to cope with the economic recession. The findings of this study indicates that some print media newspapers in Namibia were forced to go online while others reduced print runs with at least two ceased to exist. Other findings revealed that newspapers were forced to cut salaries, retrench employees and streamline operations as advertising revenues continued to dwindle. The study recommends the adoption of media sustainability models which are not only centered on ‘migrating online’ approaches but rather encompasses five interconnected dimensions; politics, economics, community, technology as well as content and expertise. It also recommends that newspapers should speed up the implementation of their new business models to ensure financial sustainability in a context characterised by economic recession and the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • Item
    The proliferation of "fake news” have massive implications, especially at the times of elections. People who live in marginalised communities are the most exposed to fake news and least armed to decode coordinated information campaigns (information disorders). As a result, it may affect the practice of active citizenship by news consumers as their voting decisions may base on misconceptions. The net effect of this is that, their voting behaviours are done on the basis of highly distorted information whereby those who are most privileged are in a position to make voting decisions on the basis of truthful and credible information. This study explored how the youth in Namibia fact-checked news and information circulated on social media platforms during the 2019 electoral campaign. Firstly, it examined the major forms or types of fake news produced in Namibia before, during and soon after the elections. Secondly, it examined the criteria used by the youth in Ombili and Hochland Park to determine the truthfulness and accuracy of news and information. Thirdly, it assessed the newsworthy factors that the youth in Ombili and Hochland Park consider before sharing news on social media. This research employed virtual ethnography, qualitative content analysis,to understand, and document the types of fake news produced, and circulated in Namibia. Focus Groups Discussions (FGDs), and face-to-face interviews were then employed to get a sense of how young people sift through fake news. Grounded in Hall’s Encoding and Decoding model, fabricated contents, manipulated contents, misleading contents, conspiracy theories and imposter contents were observed in 2019 elections. The study revealed that there was systematic abuse of mainstream brands to spread information disorders to confuse and disorient voters. In addition, these types of fake news were fueled by the poor coordination, and delays in communication from the Electoral Commission. Most of the fake news were aimed at discrediting and casting aspersions on the candidature of Dr Hage Geingob of the Swapo Party, and Dr Panduleni Itula, who was an Independent Candidate at the time. This study found that young citizens’ ability to decode fake news is influenced by the level of education, literacy skills, class differences and media exposure as pointed out by Hall’s theory. Therefore, this study would add that availability of resources to fact check online news and information and political affiliation are also key in fighting fake news. The study recommends that government should ensure that its citizens have access to quality information through tasked institutions, to avoid fabrications, and distribution of information disorders, and provide a room for media and digital literacy campaigns in order to enhance skills of citizens of deconstructing coordinated information disorders, especially on social media platforms. News consumers need to embrace the concept fact checking before agreeing, and distributing information from social media as this would protect them from making decisions that are based on misconceptions, which could affect others.
  • Item
    Social media has had a significant impact on the practice of public relations since the emergence of digital media. Organisations around the world have had to embrace social media platforms to support or facilitate communication. However, the use of social media has varied from one organisation to another. Experiences of using these platforms for public relations activities have also varied among Public Relations Practitioners (PRPs). This has been attributed to various factors, including, among others, PRPs ability to operate or use these platforms. Structure, defined as rules and resources, can influence how employees’ function in any organisation. Structure thus assumes that a set of rules and resources available to PRPs to manage social media platforms is at the core of an organisation’s operations. Thus, using a qualitative approach and Anthony Giddens’s structuration theory, this study examined the effect of organisational structure on the capabilities of PRPs to manage various social media platforms with a specific focus on commercial State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) in Namibia. The study found that structure does impact how PRPs in State-owned Enterprises manage social media platforms. Findings showed how rules and resources in organisations could influence PRPs use of social media platforms. Based on these findings, the study argues that there is a need to understand the influence of ‘structure’ as a starting point towards effectively enabling PRPs to use social media platforms for communication purposes in organisations.
  • Item
    This study sought to investigate how Namibian newspapers are adhering to copyright laws and regulations, especially in the era of media convergence. It also investigated how selected mainstream media organisations are either empowered or disempowered by the current copyright regulations, which were passed in 1994. It also assessed whether the current copyright laws used in Namibia made provisions for the use of open copyright licensing like Creative Commons. This study used a qualitative research methodology, consisting of document analysis and in-depth interviews. In order to collect primary data, interviews were conducted with journalists and editors from three media organisations in Windhoek, Namibia. These were The Namibian, New Era, and Economist. These media organisations were purposively sampled. According to the study, the majority of interviewees at The Namibian, New Era, and Economist newspapers follow the copyright regulations enshrined in the Copyright and Neighboring Rights Protection Act 6 of 1994.However, despite their religious adherence to the Act, most of the respondents explained that the legislative framework was now outdated and applied in the digital age, where content creation, distribution, and consumption are driven by multi-platforms. In the context of media convergence, respondents indicated that their content is often plagiarized by content vultures, which are dotted across the globe. They also observed that there are no safeguards in the current law to protect them from copyright transgressors. It was also revealed that most editors and journalists are aware of copyright regulations and their importance in publishing or unpublishing editions of news, articles, or information dissemination. It was also found that newspapers in Namibia follow copyright regulations with regards to attribution and referencing materials sourced from online and archival sources. The findings also demonstrated that the three media organizations recognized the importance of progressive copyright regulations. It was also found that editors and journalists are making efforts toward copyright regulations' provisions for open access copyright licensing or fair use dealing exceptions like creative commons. The study found that attribution is compulsory when journalists and editors use or reuse copyrighted works with the provision of creative commons or fair use dealing exceptions. Conversely, the study revealed that the majority of the newspaper institutions, editors, or journalists are less aware of the International Copyright Act or treaties such as the Berne Convention, WIPO’s Copyright Treaty (WCT), WIPO’s Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT), and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).
  • Item
    Public relations (PR) is seen as an intrinsic part of every organisation because it provides the opportunity to monitor, have dialogue, and respond to issues that affect key publics of the organisation. PR practitioners have used communication to uphold and maintain a favourable image and build beneficial relationships between an organisation and its public. Despite the value that is ascribed to public relations, negative perceptions about the practice prevail, at the same discussions on the professionalisation of public relations continue in different contexts. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of the public relations profession among selected corporate organisations in Windhoek, Namibia, in order to understand how they construct public relations as a profession. Using a qualitative approach, the study adopted an exploratory research design. Face-to face in-depth interviews were conducted with participants and the following observations were made: Stakeholder management and information management were perceived as some of the main roles and functions of PR. The placement of PR, in terms of the organisational structure, was seen as a matter of concern and an aspect that revealed how organisations perceive PR. The study also found that having a professional body to advance the profession, and support the interests of people working within the profession, is imperative towards the professionalisation of PR. The importance of having the relevant qualification was emphasised as another important aspect that can increase the credibility of theprofession. The study concludes that the definition and role of public relations is well understood in some organisations while the placement of the public relations role away from the management role reveals a limited understanding of the role and function of PR. The study argues that understanding perceptions on public relations is a starting point towards building and maintaining the credibility of the profession. This is imperative as perceptions about the public relations profession affect how PR is practiced and its ultimate contribution to the success of the organisation.
  • Item
    Is language a barrier to public’s participation in the law-making process? An analysis of Namibia Broadcasting Corporation’s live broadcasting of Namibia’s Parliamentary proceedings in the official language.
    This study investigated the issue of language as a barrier to the rights of the public's participation in law-making process and the impact of the live broadcasting of Parliamentary proceedings by the Namibia Broadcasting Corporation (NBC). It further looked at the role of the media, specifically NBC, in the facilitation of the citizens' participation in law-making and processes of parliament. The objectives of the study were to establish the role of the NBC, in the facilitation of citizens' participation in the law making and processes of parliament. It also critically analyse the extent to which language is a barrier to the public's participation in the law-making process and finally analysed the impact of Namibia Broadcasting Corporation's live broadcasting of Parliamentary proceedings in English on the citizenry. For the purpose of data collection, the researcher employed the qualitative research approach by conducting interviews with Namibian citizens. The study revealed that the role of the media in facilitating citizen participation in law-making and parliamentary processes is critical and significant because the media create knowledge and awareness on governance issues and parliamentary functions such as the law-making process. The study also found that language is a barrier to the citizens' participation in the law-making process. Based on these findings, the study recommended that translation be considered during the live broadcasting of parliamentary proceedings and that a dedicated radio and television channel be established to involve more citizens in the law-making and processes of government.
  • Item
    Developing a cybersecurity framework for the banking sector of Namibia
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2021-08-20) Nawa, Eva-Lisa Tuwilika
    The banking sector represents a vast assortment of firms, agencies and institutions with operations ranging from small community banks to massive international corporations. Managing the banking sector in Namibia presents a herculean task to regulators charged with its regulation oversight on cyber risks. The management of cybersecurity takes on greater complexity in considering multinationals with global partners and operations in countries with varying levels of cybersecurity sophistication. With the increase of cyber-attacks worldwide and banking institutions being key targets, the degree of risks from cybersecurity threats that banks are facing has grown rapidly in recent years. The increasing threats place sensitive data and organisational security at risk. This is exacerbated by the absence of a recognised cybersecurity framework that can safeguard the online transactions of financial data between banks and customers in the banking sector. To overcome these problems, a Namibia Banking Cybersecurity Framework (NBCF) to guide banking institutions in safeguarding the online transactions of financial data between banks and customers was developed. A qualitative research approach using the Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM) was adopted to address the research objectives. This research was conducted in the commercial banks of Namibia and involved their staff. In addition to data collected from literature reviews, data were also collected from a sample of 6 out of 10 licenced banks in Namibia using semi-structured interviews. The selection of the banks was done using the purposive sampling method and universally accepted ethical standards were considered. Data were analysed through a technique known as coding. The study identified various elements which are essential for a cybersecurity framework: data protection and privacy, human factors such as soft skills, Principle of Least Privilege (POLP), public knowledge on information security practices, aspect of disaster recovery documentation, and cyber breach simulations. The NBCF framework is proposed as a guideline on how the Namibian banking institutions can securely build cyber resiliency, manage their cyber risks and strategies and also help in implementing an appropriate level of rigor for their cybersecurity programmes. The NBCF framework should therefore guide the adoption of cybersecurity best practices in the Namibian banking sector. In addition, the framework is envisaged to complement the current Namibian government initiatives and the long-term goals of Vision 2030 such as the strategy of attaining infrastructure development as stated in the Harambee Prosperity Plan which highlights the urgent necessity to invest in cybersecurity. Expert reviews of the proposed framework were conducted and they yielded that the framework is relevant, applicable, usable and understandable in combating cybersecurity issues in the Namibian banking sector.
  • Item
    Factors influencing the adoption and redesign of the ewallet service in Namibia.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2019-02) Sheya, Maria Namupala
    The use of mobile phones in everyday life has increased dramatically in recent years, making mobile phones a very integral part of our lifestyle. Namibia is amongst 105 countries with more cellular subscriptions than inhabitants. The increased ownership of smart phones and the affordability of mobile data packages offered more ways for banks to make even more services available such as, customer-to-customer direct payment services. Banks have rolled out this service under various names such as eWallet, Blue-Wallet and Easy-Wallet. This means that, consumers no longer have to walk around with a wallet full of cards or cash as their cell phones offer access to their banks, and convenience of banking everywhere. Despite the potential benefits to consumers, especially those without bank accounts, the adoption rate among consumers was limited. The aim of this research was to investigate the factors that are influencing consumer adoption of the eWallet service in Namibia and provide insights on how to redesign the eWallet service for increased adoption. The research methods included a semi structured questionnaire and interviews. The findings of the research indicates that, factors such as effective communication, system availability and reliability, transaction speed, usefulness, cost, system response, security and trust, convenience and accuracy of transaction influencing consumer adoption of eWallet services. A redesign of the eWallet service based on the findings and design heuristics were proposed.
  • Item
    Designing an algorithm that can influence children’s behaviour online and raise their cyber security awareness.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2020-12-18) Kavikairiua, Jennyphar
    The Internet offers children incredible opportunities by enhancing their communication, social connections and technical skills. But it can't just guarantee them a secure environment. With no experience and knowledge, children's behaviours potentially expose them to cyber criminals as they share information innocently and become friends with strangers. Cyber security threats are highly present in social media and many people don't know about them. In particular, children voluntarily reveal personal and private details about themselves from which cybercrimes can emerge either in their real world or in the virtual world, if this shared information ends up in the wrong hands. This is most likely due to previous knowledge or exposure of the children on the Internet. This study sought to examine the online habits and actions of children who are vulnerable to cybercrimes and evaluated suitable behaviour influencing tools for children’s online activities. Employing a design science research method began with a comprehension of the problem. This was achieved by analysing the literature and the research findings that were self-constructed, as well as the use of open-ended questionnaires and close-ended questions. Once the problem was identified, the next step was to identify ideas which could solve the problem. These ideas were taken from the domains which were considered important to solve the problem. The behaviour influencing algorithm was then designed and evaluated following the literature and persuasion theory, as a solution to overcome the children’s insecure behaviour problem online. The vital contribution of the research is that it can benefit children that will be introduced to this algorithm by influencing and assisting them on how to securely behave online. In addition, the thesis provides contributions to the knowledge base by identifying and analysing the online activities and behaviours of children which can expose children to cybercrimes and it also provided some guidelines on how to influence children’s online behaviour, which can be used elsewhere in the world.
  • Item
    A persuasive souvenir system (PSS) to increase Namibian museums turnout using RFID technology.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2020-01-20) Nashandi, Ndinelago Tupopila
    i DECLARATION I, Ndinelago T Nashandi, hereby declare that the work contained in the thesis for my Master in Computer Science, entitled ‘A Persuasive Souvenir System (PSS) to increase Namibian museums turnout using RFID Technology’ is my own original work and that I have not previously in its entirety or in part submitted it at any university or other higher education institution for the award of a degree. I further declare that I fully acknowledge any sources of information used for the research in accordance with the rules of the Institution. Signature: NNashandi Date: 20/01/2020 SIGNATURE OF THE SUPERVISOR I, Prof Hippolyte N Muyingi, herewith declare that I supervised this thesis. Signature: ______HNMuyingi_______________ Date: ___20/01/20________________ ii Abstract An advance in information technology has seen many museums in the world embarking on extensive and continuous developments that can be used to improve visitor experience. The extensive and continuous developments are done by creating an interactive environment that attracts more visitors to museums and sustains their role of imparting knowledge and cultural education (Busch & Sieck, 2015). There are abundant possibilities in addressing low museum turnout. The possibilities range from simple a written guide to a virtual and augmented reality; the increase of handheld devices is more used to enhance visitors’ experience within the museum (Hsi, 2004). Initial observation of turnout at Independence Memorial Museum suggests that very few Namibians, compared to foreign visitors, visit local museums. This information is based on statistical data provided by the Independence Memorial Museum, generated from 2015 to 2018, and data from an online questionnaire that was conducted in this study. The data shows that very few Namibian visits museums or do not repeat their visit to museums. Independence Memorial museum, whose impressive multi-story building was inaugurated on the 20th March 2014, revealed that statistics of local museums visitors are low or approximately equal to the number of foreign visitors. Windhoek city has the highest number of inhabitants in the country, with a population of approximately 400 000 (City of Windhoek, 2016). Only 5% of 400 000 Windhoek population visits the museum yearly, making it a worrisome number. The number of students’ trips to museums, organised by schools, is also low, with figures dropping from 5 583 learners in 2015 to 3 290 in 2018. This proportion is low, considering the fact that Windhoek has the highest number of schools in Namibia. This shows how Namibian citizens are far away from attaining knowledge that is preserved therein. This also threatens the sustainability of cultural institutions, including museums, as well as their mission of educating the society about their Namibia cultural heritage. This study proposed a possibility of solving this problem through persuasive technology by developing a Persuasive Souvenir System (PSS) that could attract and retain more visitors. The study posits that visitors will spend more time viewing the most attracting or interesting artefact in a museum. Thus, marking iii up this experience through a souvenir of the most visited artefact can be a trigger to attract the visitor to revisit the museum. Alternatively, by sharing the experience, the visitor would get friends or close relatives becoming interested to also visit. The system for Namibian museums was developed using C# programming language, and it makes use of identification and tracking technology, which aims to promote and boost the numbers of visitors to local museums by rewarding them with a souvenir card, consisting a photo of them, coupled with their most attracted or interested artefact and description. This system has been successfully developed through a prototyping methodology, and it has also been evaluated. However, due to limited time trial, and taking into account that there is a possibility of visitors taking longer time to decide whether they should visit the museum again or not , the study could not prove if the PSS is indeed able to convince visitors to revisit the museum or new visitors to start visiting the museum. The persuasive component evaluation is part of suggested future works, and it will need to be tested in a long term.