Masters and PhD Theses

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 149
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    Developing a cybersecurity framework for the banking sector of Namibia
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2021-08-20) Nawa, Eva-Lisa Tuwilika
    The banking sector represents a vast assortment of firms, agencies and institutions with operations ranging from small community banks to massive international corporations. Managing the banking sector in Namibia presents a herculean task to regulators charged with its regulation oversight on cyber risks. The management of cybersecurity takes on greater complexity in considering multinationals with global partners and operations in countries with varying levels of cybersecurity sophistication. With the increase of cyber-attacks worldwide and banking institutions being key targets, the degree of risks from cybersecurity threats that banks are facing has grown rapidly in recent years. The increasing threats place sensitive data and organisational security at risk. This is exacerbated by the absence of a recognised cybersecurity framework that can safeguard the online transactions of financial data between banks and customers in the banking sector. To overcome these problems, a Namibia Banking Cybersecurity Framework (NBCF) to guide banking institutions in safeguarding the online transactions of financial data between banks and customers was developed. A qualitative research approach using the Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM) was adopted to address the research objectives. This research was conducted in the commercial banks of Namibia and involved their staff. In addition to data collected from literature reviews, data were also collected from a sample of 6 out of 10 licenced banks in Namibia using semi-structured interviews. The selection of the banks was done using the purposive sampling method and universally accepted ethical standards were considered. Data were analysed through a technique known as coding. The study identified various elements which are essential for a cybersecurity framework: data protection and privacy, human factors such as soft skills, Principle of Least Privilege (POLP), public knowledge on information security practices, aspect of disaster recovery documentation, and cyber breach simulations. The NBCF framework is proposed as a guideline on how the Namibian banking institutions can securely build cyber resiliency, manage their cyber risks and strategies and also help in implementing an appropriate level of rigor for their cybersecurity programmes. The NBCF framework should therefore guide the adoption of cybersecurity best practices in the Namibian banking sector. In addition, the framework is envisaged to complement the current Namibian government initiatives and the long-term goals of Vision 2030 such as the strategy of attaining infrastructure development as stated in the Harambee Prosperity Plan which highlights the urgent necessity to invest in cybersecurity. Expert reviews of the proposed framework were conducted and they yielded that the framework is relevant, applicable, usable and understandable in combating cybersecurity issues in the Namibian banking sector.
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    Investigating the potential of Moringa Oleifera for agribusines development and rural youths’ self-employment in the Livingstone rural areas.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2020-06-22) Kwaambwa, Esther Lombe Chitoshi
    First, I give glory and honour to the Lord God Almighty. I would like to express my gratitude and give my extended appreciation to Dr Thinah Moyo and Dr Julius Manda for their guidance right from the first day that this study was proposed up to this stage. I would also like to express a word of appreciation to Mr Mwala Lubinda for his input in the data analysis. I am also indebted to Mrs Stella Ndjovu and Mrs Diana Ndjovu for their kind assistance in the distribution and conduction of the questionnaire interviews. I am equally grateful to the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) through the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) for providing me with funding for the research. Furthermore, I would like to take this opportunity to give gratitude to my husband, Prof. H. M. Kwaambwa, for the support that he rendered to me from the beginning of my degree, financially, emotionally and physically. I am also grateful to my mother, father and family for their prayers and encouragement.
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    Communal cattle husbandry practices and their impact on market participation: a case study of FSP farmers from Zambezi region in Namibia
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2016) Akashambatwa, Clifford Lubinda
    Cattle play an important socio-economic role in the livelihood of communal farmers in Namibia. This study examines the socio-economic determinants of adoption of improved livestock management practices among communal livestock farmers in Zambezi region, Namibia. The main objective of the study was to explore the effect adoption of GIZ introduced livestock management practices on cattle production in the Zambezi region, the specific objectives were to conduct situational analysis of the livestock management practices in Zambezi region and examine factors influencing adoption of the newly introduced livestock management practices. Data for the study were obtained from a survey of a sample of 86 communal livestock farmers who are benefiting from the Farmer Support Project (FSP) in the Zambezi region. Descriptive statistics and a multi-logistic regression model were employed to analyse the data. Most respondents (48%) had secondary education, which is a significant factor in determining probability of adoption of improved agricultural management practices. 35% of the respondent‟s herd sizes ranged between 11 to 30 cattle, which was the highest and herd composition were mainly consisting of cows (34%), heifers (22%) and oxen (26%). The results revealed that about eight out of thirteen livestock management practices disseminated to farmers were adopted and in practice. Castration, tick control, branding and vaccination were the most adopted technologies. Multi-logistic regression model analysis indicated that probability of adoption of livestock management technologies increased with education, financial assistance, advice, total cattle owned, total cattle sales and experience. The study presented a very low off-take rate of 1.5%. Oxen older than 36 months were the most sold and the second most sold were cows 56% and 29% respectively. The findings imply that in order to increase adoption of improved technologies, access to education, financial assistance, and training in animal management practices should be enhanced. The empirical results showed that education, financial assistance, advice and total cattle owned were significant at 5%, 5%, 10%, and 10% respectively.
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    Production frontier of small scale pearl millet farmers under conservation agriculture in northern Namibia
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2016-10) Montle, Bonolo Pontsho
    Pearl millet is a major staple food crop of Northern Namibia dominantly produced by small scale farmers. This paper examines technical efficiency of smallholder pearl millet farmers under Conservation and Traditional Agriculture as well as their willingness to pay for extension services. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire administrated to 100 randomly selected small-scale pearl millet farmers in Omusati, Ohangwena, Oshikoto, Oshana and Kavango regions. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics, stochastic frontier production function approach as well as the probit regression model. The estimated stochastic frontier Cobb- Douglas production function showed that land availability, the level of fertilizer use and tractor power explains variations in the production of pearl millet. The efficiency analysis results show that farm level technical efficiency for Conservation Agriculture and Traditional Agriculture were 32% and 33% respectively. This indicates that overall, there is a potential to improve efficiency in pearl millet production among smallholder farmers in the study area by 68% through the efficient use of Conservation Agriculture. Furthermore, on Traditional Agriculture, there is a potential to improve efficiency by about 67% utilising existing farm resources better and adopting improved technology and techniques. Based on this result, the study recommends that Conservation Agriculture should be continued and over a long period of time so that the impact can be felt. The results of the inefficiency model indicate that under Conservation Agriculture, farming experience has a significant positive effect on efficiency. While on Traditional Agriculture, farm experience, farm size, training had a significant and positive effect on efficiency. The policy implications with regards to the technical efficiency are that to improve farm efficiency, efforts should focus on capacity building, training, extension services, information on agronomic practices and farmer’s education. On farmer’s willingness to pay for extension services, the predicted probability of getting farmers willing to pay is 60%. The model showed that farm size, Income < 2000, cooperative membership and household size are significant determinants of farmers’ willingness to pay. The study recommends that these key parameters are given proper policy consideration in the design and the implementation of a workable policy, for example, improving extension services through privatization.
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    The Effect of Training on Cattle Farmers’ Productivity and Efficiency: A Case of Kunene region, Namibia
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2020-02) Abraham, Emilie Mekondjo
    Despite the importance of cattle and the enormous economic contribution to the country, communal cattle farmers seldom earn increased return on investment because of their adherence to their traditional system of farming. Such as outdated animal husbandry practices, high stocking rate, high breeding ratio or no bull in the herd and the sale of old stock (10 years and above) instead of younger cattle (heifers and tollies) that have potential to fetch premium price from the market. The use of traditional animal husbandry practice is due to the lack of appropriate farming knowledge and skills. Sometimes, there are financial limitations to source required production inputs that can enhance productivity and efficiency. Therefore, this impact not only on farmer’s sustainability but on meat supply in the country. However, this compromises the country’s food security agenda. To this end, Developmental projects funded by Germany Government (GIZ) and Agribank of Namibia amongst others have implemented capacity building for farmers to complement the Directorate of Agricultural Production Engineering and Extension Services (DAPEES). The project aim was to enhance farmer’s skills and knowledge to enable them to upscale their farm productivity and efficiency as well as strengthen their capacity to withstand climate change challenges (E.g. drought). Thus, this study investigates whether training intervention improved farm productivity and efficiency and identify ways in which the cattle farmers can improve. The study shows that a significant number of cattle farmers that received training adopted the best cattle husbandry practices such as appropriate tagging, castration, proper deworming and vaccination amongst others. Thus, the result shows that the calving percentage and offtake rate (number of heads sold per annum) for trained farmers exceed that of their peers (untrained farmers). This paper used a treatment effect model to determine the causal relationship between training and farm productivity. Estimators such as Regression Adjustment (RA), Inverse‐Probability Weighted (IPW) regression, the Augmented Inverse Propensity Weighted (AIPW) estimator and Inverse Probability Weighted Regression Adjustment (IPWRA) estimator were used to estimate the treatment effects of training on offtake rate). Estimation was based on survey data obtained by interviewing 212 cattle farmers from various districts of Kunene Region, Namibia. One treatment level used for this study was training (Treatment is coded as one if a farmer is trained, zero otherwise). The result shows that farmers who were trained had Potential Outcome Mean (POM) sales of 176 cattle per annum compared to the untrained farmers who had a POM of 92 cattle. In addition, a Stochastic Frontier Analysis model (SFA) was fit to determine the factors that contribute to inefficiencies in cattle production. The study shows that as farmers get older, they get more experience and efficient in cattle production. However, farm type (full time or part‐time) and family size also reduce inefficiencies in cattle production. This was attributed to the fact that; full‐time farmers spend more time on the farm and could closely supervise and monitor their farming enterprises. In addition, large household size tends to complete farm activities on time using less man/days. The constant return to scale was as well determined using capital and labour as factors of production. However, for labour, it was accepted, and reject that of capital (capital invested in production cost) as the coefficient for capital is less than one. This could be attributed to the multi‐purpose of farming observed in Kunene region other than for commercial reasons. Thus, family members are utilised as farmworkers, and farmers do not attach value/cost to this factor of production. Thus, farm capital could be used for other personal reasons, other than just production. Overall, the study found that as farmers age, they get more experienced, and become more productive and efficient in their cattle production ceteris paribus.
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    Investigating the effects of smallholder cowpeas farmers' management practices on soil fertility: A case study of the Kavango region, Namibia
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2020-10) Katjana, Johannes Katjana
    The declining trend of soil fertility of smallholder farms due to continuous land cultivation is a factor that limits crop production and threatens food security. Improving soil fertility is a major concern for the farmers, researchers and the government. Most smallholder farmers have scarce resources to invest in chemical fertilizers, composts, etc. to improve soil fertility. The planting of legume has been promoted by the researcher in that it can improve soil fertility by the nitrogen fixation process and this can be some form of affordable technology for the farmers. However, how long legume fixation becomes significant is still not clear. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of smallholder cowpea farmers’ management practices on soil fertility. The cross-sectional data were collected through questionnaires from 90 households in the Kavango East and West regions of Namibia which were used for the present analysis. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were used to outline the responses. The principal component analysis was used to reduce the dimension of data to avoid multicollinearity. PCA was performed using the eigenvalue and vector of 10 principal components. The eigenvalue of the first 10 principal components (PC1-PC10) was greater than 0.9 and their cumulative variance proportion was 72.07 percent. Multinomial logit was also used to determine factors that affect farmers’ soil management practices. The result from multinomial logit model showed that farming experience, planting date, climatology services transportation/extension services and access to farm tools and gender significantly influence planting millet only or intercrop millet with cowpea at 5 percent level of probability. The Wilcoxon rank test was used to ascertain the effects of cowpea on soil fertility for a season. The results showed that there was no significant influence of planting cowpea between the 2017 and 2019 growing season (p-value=0.103). The only significant difference occurred between the farmers’ regions (p-value =0.009). The farmers in the Kavango East region had an average higher score. The difference in soil fertility in the two regions may be due to the different soils in the regions. It is recommended that improving the policy on access to climatology service, transportation/extension service, and farm tools can help the farmers to make a better decision on farming practices that can improve their soil fertility. There is also a need to find an innovative way to meet food security and improve soil fertility for the smallholder farmers. This should be based on the direct benefit to the farmers and soil improvement.
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    Ecology of resident Temminck's Pangolin (Smutsia Temminckii) in Central Namibia
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2020-05) Prediger, Kelsey Anne
    Pangolins are the most trafficked mammals worldwide and as Asian species’ numbers have drastically declined, African pangolin species have been increasingly targeted for the illegal wildlife trade. Due to their nocturnal and elusive behaviour, many pangolin species, especially Southern Africa’s Temminck’s pangolin (Smutsia temmicnkii), are understudied and poorly understood. Previous research predominantly stems from the 1990’s and demonstrates highly variable results in pangolin ecology and behaviour. This study represents the first detailed research within Namibia, focusing on the ecology of Temminck’s pangolin in the central shrub savannah habitat on a fenced private nature reserve. The overall objective of this study was to contribute to knowledge of the basic ecology of Temminck’s pangolin to help inform conservation strategies for pangolins through understanding home range sizes and overlaps between individuals, prey preference, and burrow selection. The study was conducted from September 2018 to March 2020 utilizing VHF telemetry, GPS tracking, and field observations. A total of 46 resident individuals were identified on the 22,000 hectare private reserve and 36 were tagged. Home range sizes were calculated for the entire tagging period utilizing MCP and 95% and 50% Kernel density models. Home range and core area during the growing and non-growing seasons for male and female individuals were calculated using 95% and 50 % Kernel Density models and Complex Region Spatial Smoother (CReSS) analysis. Home range sizes on average were 6.32 km2 – 23.97 km2 for males and between 5.10 km2 – 11.11 km2 for females. Core area sizes on average ranged from 1.81 km2 – 7.03 km2 for males and between 1.75 km2 – 2.17 km2 for females. Male home ranges overlapped with four or more female home ranges, showing a polygamous mating system. During the growing season there were 53 instances of home range overlap and 23 instances of core area overlap. During the non-growing season there were 25 instances of home range overlap and 7 instances of core area overlap. Pangolins mostly fed by excavating nests, showed clear preference for 6 species of ants and termites, and fed almost exclusively on Anoplolepis spp. during the growing season although this species was not the most abundant in the area. The study animals preferred burrows of at least one meter deep located at the base of termite mounds in dense thornshrub of mostly Senegalia mellifera. Home range and social dynamics were comparable to those found by Heath & Coulson in Zimbabwe and the preference for Anoplolepis sp. and burrows under termite mounds is comparable to studies done in South Africa. The study assists in determining likely densities of pangolins in Namibia’s thornbush savanna and provides prey and burrow preference variables which can be used to determine suitable release sites for confiscated live trafficked pangolins.
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    Global export competitiveness of Namibian hides and skins.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2020-11) Mawenge, Gideon
    Globalisation increases competitive pressure and technological changes. Agribusiness in developing economies experiences these new challenges in an attempt to globalise their operations. These challenges have a continuous effect on the competitiveness of the Namibian economy in the hides and skins sector. It is, therefore, important that the hides and skins subsector prepares for intense competition to sustain and improve its operations. Analysis of hides and skins export competitiveness is thus important to measure overall sectoral performance. The study provides an overview of the global and local hides and skins sector before a discussion on analysed export competitiveness of Namibia’s hides and skins. Four indexes were used to measure Namibia’s hides and skins export competitiveness for 18 years (2001-2018), and this includes, Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), Index of Contribution to Trade Balance (CTB), Grubel-Lloyd Index (GLI), and Michaely Index (MI). The analysed results show that Namibia is globally competitive in the production and export of hides and skins. RCA index results reveal that Namibia maintained its comparative advantages for 14 uninterrupted years of the analysed 18- year period. The findings of the CTB index indicate that the hides and skins sector contribution to the overall trade balance is negative and there is no real surplus. The analysis of the GLI index reveals that in general, Namibia exports the same quantity as much as it imports for most of the hides and skins commodities. Results of the Grubel-Lloyd Index indicate that Namibia has a higher complementarity in the production and export of hides and skins. The results of the GLI index also show that Namibia has a great potential to increase its export competitiveness through improved production of hides and skins. A paradigm shift is needed for Namibia to further enhance and maintain its export competitiveness of hides and skins. Overall contribution to trade balance showed a negative trend and this situation should be improved through increased production and export to enhance competitiveness. Increased off-take by improved production will significantly lead to more exports of hides and skins. Communal farmers who are still practicing cultural livestock rearing, keeping large heads of livestock as a sign of wealth, need to be mentored on the importance of commercialising farming practices and value addition to hides and skins. A transformation strategy to change farmers’ traditional farming philosophy should be established to enable farmers to practice commercial farming in a communal set up. Strategies such as frequent monitoring and evaluation, coaching and advice will help to inculcate modern farming practices into farmers’ mind-sets to improve production, processing, and trade. Key role players in the hides and skins sector need to be capacitated through technical, financial, and infrastructural support to improve flying and drying of hides and skins. Value chain actors should be informed of economic importance of hides and skins, how their role (as livestock producers, hides and skins processors) contributes to the quality of end products considering practiced farming systems. The government should formulate policies to regulate the hides and skins sector with tailor-made management strategies at all levels of the value chain. Emphasis should be put on value addition, marketing, skilled workforce, sustainable animal husbandry, disease management strategies, improved slaughtering facilities and practices, preservation and handling procedures, tanning, and processing techniques and facilities.
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    Drivers of human-carnivore conflict in Epupa and Okanguati conservancies, Kunene region Namibia.[Unpublished master's thesis]. Namibia University of Science and Technology.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2021-09) Iiyambula, Ailla-Tessa Nangula
    Habitat fragmentation has increased the prospect of human and wildlife encounters consequently resulting in conflict. In an agriculture-focused landscape, conflict occurs when wildlife including carnivores destroy property and prey on livestock. Conservancies in Namibia have monitored natural resources inclusive of Human-Carnivore Conflict (HCC) and analysed the temporal trend of conflict over the years. However, the spatial distribution of livestock predation, including potential anthropogenic and environmental risk factors have not been assessed. Using binary logistic regression modelling (GLM), selected environmental (EV) and anthropogenic (AV) variables associated with the occurrence of livestock predation in Epupa (EC) and Okanguati (OC) Conservancies by leopard, caracal, hyena (spotted and brown), cheetah and jackal were investigated. The following data were collected; i) livestock predation data for modelling spatial and temporal distribution, ii) household interviews on livestock predation experience, iii) vegetation structure at killing sites and iv) kraal structure assessment.A total of 425 incidents were reported in EC between 2014-2020 and 523 in OC between 2012-2020 with the highest number of incidents in both conservancies recorded during the wet season. The majority of cases in OC are attributed to cheetah while caracal was responsible for the majority of incidents in EC. Vegetation structure and visibility differed by hunting preferences of the different carnivores. Cheetah hunted in areas with average visibility of 69.5m ± 40.8m, leopard (31.8m ± 29.1m), caracal (49.1m ±18.4m), jackal (68.6m±38.5m) and hyena (50.8m ±17.42m). Leopard killing sites had the lowest tree and shrub density per 50m². Distance to natural and artificial water points is identified as a determinant of livestock predation in both conservancies. The probability of conflict occurrence was higher in proximity to water points. In addition, elevation, distance from houses and fields were also important predictors. The risk of livestock attacks is predicted within the livestock zone, around villages and houses. The structure of kraals that experienced livestock attacks was poor in comparison to kraals that did not experience livestock attacks. The presence of a kraal at some households did not guarantee livestock enclosure at night hence attacks around the house. Furthermore, livestock herding did not prove effective. Livestock predator conflict is a nationwide problem, therefore the application of modelling as a tool of identifying risk areas to align management and mitigation measures could be useful for natural resources managers. In light of the above results, the study recommends strategic location and distribution of water points inclusive of wildlife areas, and conservancies to enforce overnight livestock kraaling in conflict hotspots. Wild prey and carnivore populations are a crucial component in managing and determining the causes of conflict hence conservancies must conduct regular game counts. In addition, the reintroduction of wildlife in the areas should be considered to foster wild prey population growth.
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    Relationship between the location and causes of motor vehicle accidents on the B1 road, Windhoek to Rehoboth, Namibia.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2019-04) Cloete, Carolie
    Motor Vehicle Accidents (MVAs) are fast becoming the leading cause of death globally. In 2010, one person died every 25 seconds due to an MVA. Namibia was highlighted in 2008 as the country with the highest accident‐related fatality rate in the world (45 deaths per 100 000) and in 2010, ranked 9th overall for fatality rate in Africa. The B1 road in the Hardap region (Rehoboth and its surrounding areas) was identified in 2009 as one of the top ten locations for MVAs and in 2014 as an area with high MVA associated fatality. Despite the identifiable causes of MVAs, accident rates continue to rise and have been recognised as a neglected epidemic due to poor data capturing and reporting. Despite the availability of data in Namibia there has been very little research performed to investigate the causes of these statistics and no research linking the cause to the location. Filling in these research gaps is important in beginning to remedy the high number of accidents and fatalities associated with MVAs in Namibia. The study aimed to map the causes of MVAs in relation to the location (at 20km intervals) on the B1 road between Windhoek and Rehoboth. The objectives of the study were to identify clusters of causes per location interval and determine and describe the relationship between the causes and location of MVAs. The final objective is to formulate and propose endorsements for the erection of cause‐specific features at identified locations as a prevention strategy.
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    Developing technology to strengthen resilience in san children to reduce school dropouts.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2020-01-30) Kays, Rosetha
    School dropouts have been a concern in Namibia, especially among San learners. Thus this research focused on developing a mobile counselling platform for Grade seven (7) primary school learners in Donkerbos village. The aim of the application is to build resilience in primary school San learners for them to withstand adversity by bouncing back. This is to reduce San learners’ high dropout rates in Namibian schools. The study looked into the area of an individual’s life where resilience could be developed more. The study focused on the challenges learners normally face in order to support them in those areas for them to be more positive and develop a strong sense of purpose and meaning in their own lives. There are factors that can enhance resilience in an individual. Factors such as environmental, family, social, cultural, community and personal characteristics can have an impact in an individual’s life (Herrman, Stewart, Diaz-Granados, Berger, Jackson, & Yuen, 2011). The study used a qualitative methodology for data collection for the sampling within the San community to explore and understand the contributing dropout and success factors. For data collection, video recorded interviews were conducted with successful Windhoek based San youth and audio recordings with dropout Donkerbos village based San youth. The primary school San learners also shared their current challenges through a rich picture method which is some form of a narrative. Snowball sampling technique was used to choose the participants for the research study. The mobile counselling platform was developed based on data extracted from narratives of successful, dropout San youths’ school life stories as well as current issues identified by primary school San learners using rich pictures. The collected success and failure stories by the San youth as well as the current issues by the school learners were co-curated for inclusion in the mobile counselling platform. A common tool for qualitative research, namely thematic analysis was used to analyse the data collected to extract themes. Coding was done on the data set for understanding and to interpret their meanings. The themes were then categorised into key themes namely financial, social, emotional, personal, family and education after coding was done. The key themes were then reviewed and examined to gain an understanding of participants’ challenges. Furthermore, the research explored technologies currently being used elsewhere to provide counselling services. Findings demonstrate that online counselling on the web or mobile platforms vi exist and is still increasingly growing. However, most of these online counselling services are rather generic, meaning that they will not be fit in all situations and cultural backgrounds. Findings from the collected data were used as a guide to develop the mobile counselling platform. The platform was prototyped and evaluated with the successful, dropout San youth and primary school San learners for refinement. Feedback from evaluations shows that the youth and learners like the application, however, they would like to see audio and video recordings as well to make it more interesting and emotionally engaging.
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    Designing a data exchange model for EPMS and EDT systems in the directorate of special programmes of the ministry of health and social services [MOHSS].
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2021) Kandume, Puyeipawa, N
    Interoperability of health information systems (HIS) is a major challenge in many developing countries and Namibia is no exception (Nengomasha, Abankwah, Uutoni, & Pazvakawamba, 2018). In Namibia, the MoHSS has failed to implement a fully functional integrated HIS, despite continuous support made by numerous donors (Dlodlo & Hamunyela, 2017). As a result, the MoHSS is facing difficulties in integrating these fragmented information systems due to their differences in terms of platform and database structure. Putting in mind the challenges caused by lack of integration, systems interoperability through a model has been identified as a fitting solution which the research aimed to achieve. In order to achieve the research’s aim, three objectives were identified. The first objective was to examine EPMS and EDT systems’ functional data and compatibility issues. The second objective of this research was to analyse common reports generated from EPMS and EDT systems and the challenges involved in producing a common and single report. The final objective was to determine the processes that are required for EPMS and EDT systems to integrate. To address these objectives, a design science research methodology was applied in the development of the interoperability model. A qualitative data collection methodology was adopted using document analysis of targeted documents and semi-structured interviews with relevant departments of the MoHSS. The data collected through document analysis was analysed using a content analysis approach, whereby a conceptual analysis method was applied. Subsequently, data from semi-structured interviews were analysed using a thematic data analysis approach. The results show that EPMS and EDT systems are not compatible in terms of syntactic, conceptual, and terminologies. The results also showed that EPMS and EDT systems have few clinical operational discrepancies. The results further indicated that EPMS and EDT systems do not have a common patient identifier, however, the two systems share a wide range of common input data fields, which if shared can be a solution to incompleteness and reporting discrepancies. In terms of ICT infrastructure, EPMS and EDT systems are standalone databases that are hosted on iii different networks. Also, most ART facilities do not have internet connections while some have challenges with the network connection. From a technical perspective, this research emphasises that EPMS and EDT systems can interoperate. The research further, recommends that EPMS and EDT systems can interoperate through adopting an integrated data model known as a canonical model. This technological initiative will allow EPMS and EDT systems to exchange common input data fields by mapping them together to create a single unified view that will help overcome the two systems’ heterogeneous nature in terms of conceptual, semantic and syntactic levels.
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    Developing Persuasive Strategies to Facilitate Use of Mobile Health (mHealth) applications for Stress Management among NUST students.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2020-07-30) Akinmoyeje, Benjamin Akintunde
    Unmanaged stress negatively impacts the health of students and it has a tendency of leading to mental health disorders. Hence, the alarming statistics on stress - induced conditions in Namibia calls for concern. Unmanaged stress can potentially lead to depression. Unsurprisingly, depression is one of the major contributors to suicide in Namibia. Namibia ranks the 4th highest country in Africa on suicide rates within the age group of 18-28 years. This represents a significant percentage of the vulnerable population susceptible to suicide in the country. Mobile health (mHealth) applications have achieved remarkable success in the healthcare domain. The use of mHealth applications to manage chronic illnesses has gained popularity with patients especially as mobile phones become ubiquitous. Mobile apps for stress management are readily available and can be easily downloaded online for individual use. Most of these mHealth applications are free and they work either online or offline. However there is limited use of mHealth applications for stress management among Namibian students despite the availability of mHealth applications for stress management that can help improve the handling of stress conditions. Persuasive technology is the use of computers to change people’s behaviour. Persuasive technologies have the potential of improving health behaviour as shown in the literature. Unfortunately, there is limited study to show persuasive strategies included in some of the available mHealth applications for stress management, especially for the Namibian context. There is a need to investigate persuasive strategies that will motivate NUST students to use mHealth applications to initiate health behavioural change. This study planned to develop persuasive strategies that would facilitate the use of mHealth applications for stress management among NUST students. This was done by identifying persuasive elements in existing academic literature and qualitative research methodology was used to investigate suitable persuasive strategies required to motivate the use of mHealth apps for stress management among NUST students. Design Science Research strategy was applied in the study and NUST was the case considered in the evaluation of the developed guidelines. The first phase of the research was systematic literature scoping to identify elements of persuasive strategies in existing literature and persuasive elements in mobile apps for stress management. The review identified 21 persuasive strategies in the thirty-one (31) studies evaluated. The second phase included student interviews, which were developed with selected lists of context relevant elements of persuasive strategies to see which of them applied to NUST students. The outcome of the interviews was a list of elements of persuasive strategies found to facilitate the use of mHealth apps for stress management by the students and draft guidelines developed. Content analysis was used to analyse the data gathered from the interviews. The final phase involved interviews with mental health professionals and mHealth apps developers to review and validate the identified elements of persuasive strategies and guidelines identified; for their efficacy and suitability for mHealth apps for stress management among NUST students. The findings revealed 24 persuasive elements. Personalization, Tunnelling, Mindfulness, Self-tracking, Social Influence and Reminders were among the preferred persuasive strategies for mHealth apps for stress management. Scarcity, Liking, Leaderboard and Environment were not favoured. Engaging elements of persuasive strategies of the end users can improve the use of mHealth apps for stress management. It is anticipated that the findings of this study will be incorporated into existing and future mHealth apps for stress management especially for students by developers.
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    Determining the medical readiness of game rangers in the Namibian austere Environment.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2020-04) Bauer, Cornelia
    Wildlife poaching provides a serious threat to conservation and eco‐tourism development. Antipoaching activities have led to increased poacher‐ranger conflicts which have caused injuries and deaths on both sides. Rangers are faced with many perils ranging from being attacked by communities and poachers, the wildlife they protect as well as the harsh environment that they operate in, which can lead to injuries, illnesses and death. In order to reduce morbidity and mortality, rangers need to be able to perform initial stabilisation and care when a medical emergency in the field occurs. The main aim of this study was to determine whether anti‐poaching operatives and game rangers are equipped to deal with the unique medical emergencies facing them in the often remote and inhospitable Namibian rural environment. Little or no research was found regarding medical readiness of game rangers and their ability to adequately perform initial casualty care in the field, considering their unique workplace challenges. Furthermore, no information could be found on the availability and the adequacy of first aid supplies and equipment to perform such medical duties. This study used a descriptive non‐experimental design to determine which medical emergencies were most common in field ranger duties and their medical readiness to deal with such emergencies. Convenience sampling was used to conduct surveys amongst rangers and organisations which employ them. Additionally, a usage and attitude survey was undertaken to establish the most required contents for a personal first aid field kit for field rangers. The analysis is based on 115 medical readiness surveys and 69 field kit surveys. Most rangers in Namibia’s remote areas were found to lack first aid training and equipment to deal with medical emergencies, yet the occurrence of injuries and illnesses were very frequent and often serious. The nearest healthcare facilities are often far away and may be insufficient to provide definitive management to a ranger that is seriously injured or ill in the field. Furthermore, Emergency Medical Services in most rural areas are unreliable and rangers depend on own transport, sometimes using a donkey cart, to reach a medical facility. Due to the distinctive challenges that rangers face, standard first aid programmes and kits do not meet their unique requirements. Operating in a wilderness or remote area rangers will not only need extensive knowledge of common injuries and illnesses to care for themselves or a colleague, but they will also need to rely only on the equipment they carry with them. Therefore, rangers must be adequately trained and equipped for emergencies in the field. The study recommends a portable first aid kit based on the most common injuries and illnesses from this unique sector of work.
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    Developing a quality assurance system for emergency medical care service delivery in Namibia.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2020-07) Diergaardt, Brandon
    Prehospital emergency care is an ever-evolving profession that requires constant review and improvement of services delivered. The evaluation of quality service delivery in the Namibian EMS setting has never been studied before. With the current changes in the international medical sphere, the measurement of quality delivery has become ever more so pertinent in the prehospital field. The aim of the study was to develop a quality assurance system for Namibian EMS service delivery. A comparative analysis was conducted on international quality assurance systems to identify quality indicators for the Namibian EMS industry. Furthermore, a three iteration Delphi study was conducted to get consensus from a group of experts on the proposed quality indicators. Finally, the investigator conducted a pilot study, following a cross-sectional quantitative design to evaluate the quality indicators to the current emergency services operation at two emergency services within Windhoek. The comparative analysis yielded n=67 quality indicators used by first world countries. The non-clinical domain (n=39) consisted of n=18 structure, n=18 process and n=0 outcome indicators; the clinical domain (n=28) consisted of n=0 structure, n=26 process, and n=2 outcome indicators. Experts reached consensus on n=42 quality indicators following the three iteration Delphi study (iteration 1: n=13, iteration 2: n=12, iteration 3: n=17). In the pilot study, company X had 50% (n=21) compliance on indicators, n=8 non-clinical, and n=13 clinical indicators. Variation was 50% (n=21), n=12 non-clinical, n=9 clinical indicators. Company Y had 36% (n=15) compliance on indicators, n=5 non-clinical, n=10 clinical. Variation was 64% (n=27), n=15 non-clinical, and n=12 clinical respectively. The study assisted in the extrapolation of quality indicators for the Namibian EMS service delivery quality assurance system. The pilot study has shown some compliance with the proposed quality indicators however, requires further evidence-based investigation to improve patient outcomes.
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    Application of social media analytics to business intelligence in Namibia.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2019-04) Shehu, Mohammed
    Social media use within the business and branding spheres has exploded globally over the past few years. While Namibian SMEs are actively involved in social media marketing, there is a lack of deeper knowledge of audience analysis, campaign analytics and proper strategic planning for full benefit extraction. This is compounded by the relative lack of locally produced and published research within the field of social media that explicitly tackles the topic of analytics and social media strategy. Furthermore, existing frameworks present some challenges towards implementation, such as a lack of focus on contextual environmental advantages that might inform creative strategy. Through a literature review of existing platforms and research frameworks, we find that these existing frameworks do not take into account potential perceptions that may help or hamper their implementation among SMEs with differing levels of social media maturity. Guided by qualitative methods like focus groups and brand interventions, and bolstered by quantitative methods like secondary data analysis and public surveys, we find that issues of user perception, messaging presentation and placement are key themes that plague successful implementation and exploitation of social media strategy and analytics data for business intelligence. This research thus presents a better understanding of the local social media marketing and analytics environment, determines currently existing best practices among lager organizations, and uses this data to formalize a social media marketing and analytics framework for Namibian SMEs. The research takes on a pragmatic bent that complements the fast-evolving nature of social media, and theoretically contributes a novel, social-first adaptation of the popular DeLone & McLean Information System Success Model of IS research.
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    Analysis on survival rate of premature and critically sick new-born babies admitted at Windhoek central hospital (WCH), Namibia.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2020-02) Kashele, Selma Ndapandula
    Prematurity is the major cause of neonatal death world-wide, Namibia included. In Namibia, the neonatal mortality has increased dramatically from 19 deaths per 1000 live births in 2000 to 30 deaths per 1000 live birth in 2014.
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    Comparative nutritional analysis of tylosema esculentum (marama bean) germplasm collection in Namibia.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2019-10) Mataranyika, Paidamoyo N.
    Malnutrition is a medical condition caused by an unbalanced diet, typically characterised by stunting, wasting and underweight in children. Worldwide, malnutrition causes approximately 45% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age. The largest number of global incidences of malnutrition is observed in developing countries. In Namibia, 24% of children within this age group are stunted while wasting is at 6.2%, (the highest in Southern Africa). The main causes of malnutrition in Namibia are low education of mothers or caregivers of the children and food insecurity usually correlated to the household income. Therefore, treatment efforts usually include nutrition based interventions that involve providing nutritious foods to malnourished children. Protein rich legumes are often used together with cereals to form composite flours. Tylosema esculentum, (Burchell) Schreiber, commonly known as Marama bean may be used to treat malnourished children due to its high nutritious value. Indigenous to Namibia, Botswana and South Africa, Marama bean seeds have comparably high protein content ranging between 29% and 39% while lipids are between 32% and 42%. The high nutrition value of Marama bean and its physical attributes allow it to be ground into a flour and used in porridge. Marama bean is an appealing crop to Namibia in particular due to its low cultivation demands as it grows in sandy soils with minimal water requirements and no need for fertilisers.
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    Assessing the epidemiology of sharps injuries amongst nursing students: a case of selected national health training centres.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2020-10) Ndjitaviua, George
    Sharps Injuries (SIs) are a major occupational health and safety issue facing health care professionals today. According to Shiao, McLaws, Huang and Guo (2002), nursing staff are at greatest risk, especially nursing students due to their limited clinical knowledge and lack of experience. Literature on sharps injuries amongst HCWs shows extensively varying numbers of 1.4 up to 9.5 per 100 HCWs per year worldwide (Elseviers, Arias-Guillen, Gorke & Arens, 2014). According to the National Health Training Centres (NHTCs) official website, the Enrolled Nurse/Midwifery Training program students are required to acquire theoretical and practical knowledge in the classroom set-up during the training period (National Health Training Centres [NHTCs], 2018). In addition, students are expected to complete practical learning attachments in hospitals where they are expected to perform invasive procedures that put them at risk of experiencing potentially infectious SIs. This study was conducted with the purpose of establishing the epidemiology of sharps injuries amongst the study population. The study adopted a cross-sectional study design using an anonymous structured self-administered questionnaire as a data collection tool within the framework of a survey procedure. The data were investigated and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) software, version 22. The study findings yield that 19.5% of respondents experienced a sharps injury during their training period. The study highlights that the most common reason for injury (6 out of 22 respondents) was the uncapping or recapping needles during injection of patients. This suggests that more emphasis should be accorded to the safety aspects around this procedure. Eighty one percent (18 out of 22) of injuries were self-inflicted while eighteen percent indicated that the needle stick injuries were caused by another person. The NHTCs nursing curriculum committee should revisit the course content on sharps safety, especially on the injection procedure which account for (50%) of SIs experienced by the study subjects. Emphasis should be placed on the correct use of protective clothing/devices. An evaluation should be done to that effect to ascertain competency.
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    Fertility and pregnancy outcome among women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment in Windhoek, Namibia.
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2020-04) Lucas, Adão Francisco
    Infertility is a worldwide burden that requires attention, and yet has been largely unappreciated and understudied, particularly in sub-Sahara Africa where there is a high prevalence. The stigma of infertility among African women is a serious socio-economic concern that needs to be tackled and alleviated. Infertility has been defined as a couple’s failure to conceive after continuous and unprotected coitus for one year or six months, depending on the age of the female counterpart. Although infertility can be caused by both male and female factors, the female is often to blame and bear the consequences, particularly in cultures that have placed a high premium on children such as those found in Africa. This study therefore, explored the effectiveness of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment on pregnancy outcomes and assessed possible risk factors that lead to infertility among Namibian women.