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    Interrogating xenophobic tendencies in Nadine Gordimer’s July’s People, Phaswane Mphe’s Welcome to our Hillbrow and Meg Vandermerwe’s Zebra Crossing
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2023-10) Shihepo, Absalom
    The study serves to make use of the trauma theory to interrogate xenophobic tendencies in three South African novels namely Nadine Gordimer’s July’s People, Phaswane Mphe’s Welcome to our Hillbrow and Meg Vandermerwe’s Zebra Crossing. The three South African authors share details on the experiences of apartheid and colonialism in South Africa, but all their work revolve around the aspect of xenophobia in Southern Africa. The trauma theory was pragmatically used to dig deep into understanding the reasons of being xenophobic towards unfamiliar nationals and how the situation can be dealt with from the root and finally getting instruments that can be used to overcome xenophobia. The study prioritised the qualitative study approach to analyse the three novels. The text selection criteria were as follows: A mini research was conducted on the three novels that were not exploited especially knowing that little or no study was conducted on xenophobia before thus, there is no repetitions of previously studied content. Of course, there has been studies conducted on the novels but less has been done on the aspect of xenophobia. The texts selected offer a broader understanding of the new phenomenon of xenophobia in South Africa. There are several materials on the xenophobia in Southern Africa which prompted many articles to be explored for the literature review. The study adopted that trauma affects individuals in a manner which they themselves do not understand or are unaware of if they are traumatised. In most cases, most individuals are suffering the consequences of colonialism, it is safe to say that is why they tend to be xenophobic to foreign nationals which should not be the case. The study further believes in finding the root from which xenophobia evolved and how better it can be handled moving forward. We learn of many individuals who tend to be xenophobic but do absolutely nothing to address the issue because they do not know how to or simply because they do not see it as their responsibility. Therefore, the study strongly recommends that most xenophobic individuals need emotional and psychological help from both the state and private sector to help bring the situation under control.
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    Language as an instrument of hegemony in selected Namibian plays written in English
    (2023-08) Absalom, Wilka; Woldemariam, Haileleul Zeleke
    Reproducing hegemony and strengthening patriarchy, Namibian playwrights present women who are groomed to be good wives and mothers in some selected Namibian plays. Because of these cultural and societal expectations and practices, women assume reproductive roles and responsibilities without much remonstration. Men, on the other side, assume that women’s place is at home and that men’s place is outside home, which limits the participation of women outside home and men at home (Husselmann, 2016). Capitalizing on this simple argument and unlocking language as an instrument of hegemony, the main objective of this article is to answer few fundamental questions: Do Namibian playwrights practise derogatory language against Namibian women in the plays? Is language an instrument of hegemony and discrimination in Namibian plays? Where does this language hegemony originate? Theorizing and answering these basic questions, the article follows a feminist stylistics theoretical framework, an interpretivist paradigm, an explanatory design, and a qualitative research approach. Purposively, we selected two Namibian plays: Francis Sifiso Nyathi’s God of Women (2012) and Keamogetsi Joseph Molapong’s The Woman and the Ogre (2002). The key purpose of the article is to find out how Namibian playwrights use language to represent and characterise women. The article also argues that both Nyathi (1998) and Molapong (2002) used language to present women as inferior to men in their plays. Nyathi (2012) employed language persuasively to characterise women as victims of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse in the hands of their husbands within the Namibian marriage system and set ups. Similarly, we also argue that Molapong (2002) presented women characters negatively as dependent on their fathers. Molapong used language to portray women characters as beauty goddesses who are praised based on how beautiful they are, therefore, reducing and fragmenting their worth to appearances. Both playwrights used a wide range of linguistic devices such as metaphors and other figures of speech to characterise gender roles that are expected of women such as being domestic workers, providing sexual pleasures to their husbands as well as working in the fields to provide food for their families. In these plays, language is a strong instrument of economic hegemony. The article concludes that both Nyathi and Molapong largely practised language to characterise women negatively and Sara Mill’s Feminist Stylistic Theory (1995) is successful in unpacking these hidden assumptions, practices and hegemonies.
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    The pedagogic relevance of Namibian literature in English
    (Namibia Educational Reform Forum Journal, 2023-08) Woldemariam, Haileleul Zeleke; Gawas, Emelda U.
    This article presents the pedagogic relevance of Namibian literature in English and describes the views of Namibian literature course facilitators and language students. Through in-depth interviews, the study team sensitised educators, curriculum designers at NIED and high school learners to the pedagogic relevance of Namibian literature in English. We advocate for the inclusion of many more Namibian literary texts in the English curriculum at all levels of the Namibian education system. We visited a total of 23 high schools and 2 public universities and collected 69 questionnaires, conducted 31 interviews with high school teachers and 32 with learners. The views of five university lecturers and two language experts at NIED were also included. A review of the Namibian high school curriculum (Grade 9-12) shows that only two Namibian literary texts: Sifiso Nyathi’s “God of women” and a poem about Hendrik Witbooi were included in the new ESL syllabus. This team could not identify a single Namibian short story, novel, or an autobiography as part of the high school ESL syllabus. The Namibian high school ESL syllabus has given more focus on the descriptive, functional, and communicative grammar tasks, essay writing exercises and short piece composition activities. The imaginative writing and creative thinking part of language teaching has almost been neglected. On the contrary, at the tertiary level, it can be conspicuously observed that there exists a tremendous growth of research niche areas in the Namibian texts at UNAM and NUST. We concluded that Namibian literature in the Namibian high schools has not been taught to enhance the linguistic capabilities, the overall personalities, the literary competencies of high school learners and inculcate the diverse Namibian cultures, values, and traditions.
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    Comparing the exile and return memories of Namibian women in the Namibian autobiographies
    (Namibia Educational Reform Forum Journal, 2023-08) Emvula, Kaarina; Woldemariam, Haileleul Zeleke
    This article compares the expressions used to recount the memories of women who lived in exile with those born and raised in exile from a predominantly cognitive stylistics image schema theory. The linguistic expressions compared were obtained from the four Namibian autobiographies namely Tshiwa Troudie Amulungu’s in Taming my elephant, Fousy Shinana-Kambombo’s Southwest Africa to Namibia, in My personal struggle, Valentina Nghiwete’s Valentina: The exile child and Lucia Engombe’s Child No. 95: My German African Odyssey. The autobiographies were examined by comparing how basic image schema such as SOURCE-PATH-GOAL, BALANCE, CONTAINER, and LINK can be used as a cognitive tool in dissecting the exile experience, understanding abstract linguistic expressions and meaning as well as explaining the impact of exile experiences on second generation refugees in a post-independent Namibia. The article concludes that the majority of linguistic phrases used in autobiographical narrations were found to be based on the four-image schema either at the concrete or at the abstract levels. Further, the article concludes that all the autobiographies examined have used figurative languages based on the various image schemas theory.
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    Role of misconceptions and miscommunications in theatrical characters: Analyzing speech acts in the Namibian plays
    (Linguistics and Literature Review, 2023-03-31) Simasiku, Virginia; Woldemariam, Haileleul Zeleke
    The current study examines the misconceptions and misunderstandings in the speech acts of the characters within three Namibian plays, namely The Oracle of Cidino written by Francis Nyathi, Checkmate by Maria Amakali, and The Bride and Broom penned by David Stone Ndjavera. Furthermore, this research examines the ways, which depict instances where characters’ speech acts lead to misconceptions and misunderstandings in the selected plays. Thereby, delving into these aspects, this study sheds light on the complexities of communication within the selected theatrical works. Moreover, this study examines the impact of miscommunication in discussions, which can culminate differences in understanding of speech acts between the speaker and the listener. The listener, however, is prone to a variety of emotional reactions, which arise from misunderstandings in a conversation - including feelings of joy, humor, embarrassment, regret or self-assumption, and impression of the speaker's utterance. The results of the enquiry evinced that the location-based actions performed by the characters in the three selected plays included declarative, interrogative, and imperative resources that are extracted from three Namibian plays. This is achieved by adopting a discourse analysis research approach, identifying, and explaining speech acts based on five classes of speech acts. Additionally, the current study is established on five functions of speech acts and on the other hand, the declarative statements proliferate the fewest of times since they require specified circumstances to be performed.
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    A forensic stylistics investigation of suicide letters and suicide notes in Oshikoto and Oshana regions in Northern Namibia
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2023-07-06) Kanyama, Jason Kapuka
    Crimes related to forgery and falsification of documents are committed for various reasons. The investigation of written documents such as contracts, wills and suicide messages for evidence is significant in today’s world. Since there seems to be no decline in both the crime and suicide rates in Namibia today, suicide messages must be investigated from a forensic linguistics perspective. The escalation of crime today birthed an assumption that if suicide letters and notes are only treated as such, suicide could be faked to obstruct the course of justice. As a forensic study on suicide letters and notes, the current study drew from the Codal Variation Theory by Andrea Nini (2012). Specifically, the study sought to determine the authenticity of suicide letters and notes through a lexical forensic analysis, describing the authors of suicide letters and notes in line with a syntactic forensic framework. The study also sought to evaluate the genuineness of suicide letters and notes through a discoursal forensic perspective. It adopted the exploratory research design, followed the quantitative research approach and drew from the principles of the interpretivist research paradigm. The study established that the language used in the examined suicide letters and notes contained lexical features connoting positive and negative emotions. It also observed ineptitudes in the use of the rules of well-formedness in grammar. The authors explained the motives for their suicides, made reference and directives to addressee/s. Three major recommendations were made: A forensic investigation of all purported suicide letters and notes for authenticity and genuineness should be conducted; Engagement between criminal investigation units and forensic linguists; and Forensic linguistics should be introduced as a discipline in universities in Namibia.
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    Politicising and commercialising death and pain: An analysis of The Uncertainty of Hope, We Need New Names, and Kwezi - The Remarkable Story of Fezekile Ntsukela Kuzwayo
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2022-10-31) Namupala, Justina Remember
    This study analysed the politicising and commercialising of death and pain in The Uncertainty of Hope by Valerie Tagwira, We Need New Names by NoViolet Bulawayo and Kwezi-The Remarkable Story of Fezekile Ntsukela Kuzwayo by Redi Tlhabi, through the lens of the trauma and resilience theories. The study was a desktop qualitative research, and it used content analysis to interpret and analyse the chosen texts. The purpose of the study was to explore and interpret the myriad interrelations that exist between death, pain, politics and commercialisation as presented through the three selected texts. The study found that death and pain as presented in the selected novels are closely intertwined with politics and commercialisation. The politicisation of death and pain in the three selected texts is portrayed through character deaths and pain amidst the political and economic turmoil in the three selected texts. Death and pain are subsumed in the larger political and economic environments and they are also commercialised through the female body in particular. The three texts outline that death and pain are transformed to satisfy political and monetary needs. Whereas people’s emotions and feelings are not considered and death is used as a form of generating income for businesses, the focus is rather on politics and death. The texts reflect the death of loved ones and the pain that they endure because of the political decisions by those in power. In addition, the texts depict the manipulation and ‘overuse’ of power for political reasons viewed through the empowered against the marginalised which as a result has essentially evolved the meaning of death and pain. The three texts portray the betrayal of the marginalised by the black leaders. The irony in all the three selected texts is that the systems that replaced the colonial rule continue to recommend repressive and brutal tactics on the common people. Henceforth, the marginalised masses feel betrayed by the black leaders because they hoped for better living conditions after independence, rather than a life of deprivation and poverty. Therefore, the study revealed how death and pain are subsumed in the political and economic turmoil environments in South Africa and Zimbabwe as represented in the three texts. However, despite all the challenges that characters in these texts undergo, they employ various survival techniques in order to be resilient from their adversities.
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    Entwined identities: A comparative study of Americanah, The Book of Not, and We Need New Names
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2022-10-31) Negongo, Scholastika Namutenya
    Africa is a continent made up of numerous sovereign nations and different kinds of people. African identities, which are multiple, while acting as the root or stable core for the fluid and in-transit identities, are frequently misconstrued for being a single identity. Misconstruing identities thus becomes a problem. It is for this reason that this study sought to conduct a comparative analysis of three selected African authored texts, namely Americanah (Adichie, 2013), The Book of Not (Dangarembga, 2006) and We Need New Names (Bulawayo, 2013). The Postcolonial Hybridity theory was applied to the study as a framework that guides the study. A qualitative method of data collection and analysis was used in the study. Data with similar themes that respond to the research objectives were thematically grouped and organised and then analysed. Text selection criterion was used to select these three texts from a collection of texts that were written by each of the three authors. The study findings revealed that the Orient, including the African states and the African identities, are genuine people who have been researched and represented through Orientalism. Despite the fact that colonialism has long since ceased, Africanism outside Orientalism is impossible because African states are monuments of the colonial systems. It was further revealed that although identities, as conceptualised by Hall, are inherently fluid, they are nonetheless characterised by a sense of a core identity and a sense of belonging or a state of rootedness. As a result, a human subject is identifiable because of the consciousness and coherence of their fundamental identity, which for Africans, should be viewed as existing outside the boundaries of the binary constructed by the West. African identity is being rebuilt from personhood, nationalism, racial identification, ethnic identity or cultural identity. As a central assertion drawn from a variety of assertions made about a single human subject, therefore, the study recommends a collective identity as a label type that is transitory, ephemeral, and periodic. The study recommends an analysis of the significance of identities developed throughout a subject's childhood in Africa. It further recommends the evaluation of the importance of parents and their function in forming modern African identities.
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    A comparative critical discourse analysis of Affirmative Repositioning and Popular Democratic Movement Youth League position papers on youth empowerment
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2023-04) Endjala, Vilho Mweneni
    This study focused on critical discourse analysis in the position papers issued by the Affirmative Repositioning Movement (AR) and Popular Democratic Movement Youth League (PDMYL). Specifically, the study examined language use relating to youth empowerment issues. The overall objective of this research was to study the implications of language use by AR and PDMYL, including an attempt to understand their ideological stance. To achieve this overall objective, the study addressed the following specific objectives; to analyse the textual presentation of the two political formations, to describe how nominalisation and passivation are utilised in the textual presentation by the two formations and also to determine political rhetoric strategies dominantly used by the two political formations to maintain their narrative in the public domain. This was a qualitative study that adopted a constructivist worldview. As a desktop study, a case study design was used. The study population comprised position papers issued in the public domain by the two formations, and a sample consisting of ten (10) press releases was drawn, with five (5) from each. The statements were analysed at the sentence and syntax levels, looking at the semantic context of each sentence. The analysis of the first objective indicates that AR has used illocutionary act type consisting of Assertives, Commissives and Expressives. The least utilised illocutionary act type is Declaratives. In comparison, the majority of the PDMYL statements comprise Assertives, Directives, and Commissives. Similar to AR, the least used type of illocutionary act is the Declaratives. For the second objective, the results revealed that PDMYL was found to have used nominalisation in most instances than AR. However, with passivisation, the study showed that AR had utilised more passivised forms than PDMYL. Lastly, the dominant rhetoric strategies used by AR include praises, attacks and criticisms and inclusive language. Other strategies included emotional appeal and general metaphors. As for PDMYL, the results showed that it utilised attacks and criticisms, praises and evidence. The study made recommendations based on the outcome of the results, emphasising the need to use contemporary terminologies and language that is in keeping with the youth and the utilisation of less nominalised and passivised forms so that political promises are direct and easily accountable.
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    A cognitive stylistics study of Ndinaelao Moses' Masked Warrior and Malakia Haimbangu's Complicated
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2023-05) Kambwale, Elizabeth Ndavavaelao
    The purpose of this study was to examine two Namibian authored texts titled Masked warrior by Ndinaelao Moses (2019) and Complicated by Malakia Haimbangu (2021) through cognitive stylistics. The study evaluated the language used to present anger in the novels. Lexical expressions of anger, figurative expressions, and features of discourse were also evaluated. The study applied the textual world theory as a theoretical framework for understanding and analysing the texts. A qualitative approach was used for data collection and analysis. The study findings revealed that anger has been used to manipulate and keep the readers interested in continuing to read the texts. It was further revealed that texts use dysphemism, euphemisms, repetition, personal pronouns, and other forms of derogatory language contributed to the building of the lexical expressions produced by the main characters. The study revealed that figurative expressions of language enhance anger statements to make them more provocative. Furthermore, the study revealed that anger discourse can be used to demonstrate arrogance, defensive actions, or remorseful attitude. The authors of both texts used various discursive techniques to propel the themes, linguistic elements, and characters as a way of producing texts that are relevant and more enjoyable to read. The study concluded that incorporating anger in writing texts engages readers as it relates to real-life situations. This was achieved through the roughening of characters. It was concluded that figurative expressions convey and simplify complicated messages that are difficult to understand. The study concluded that discourse plays a role in the construction of anger texts. The study recommends the use of other forms of language and grammatical expressions that align with Text World Theory, which emphasises the importance of creating a coherent and immersive fictional world through the use of linguistic and cognitive techniques. By using various linguistic expressions, authors can construct a text world that engages the reader's imagination and creates a vivid and memorable reading experience. In particular, the use of lexical expressions of anger can serve as a powerful tool for creating a narrative that entertains and captivates readers, while also conveying important social and moral messages.
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    Interrogating the contemporary English language needs for the ICT industry in the Namibian context
    (BOHR International Journal of Smart Computing and Information Technology, 2023-04-06) Gawazah, Lazarus; Woldemariam, Haileleul Zeleke
    New digital technology advances throughout the globe are principally responsible for the impetus behind the modern information and communications technology (ICT) industry’s requirement for English language skills. There is a steady increase in highly computerized new machinery, each with more complex, difficult -to-understand instruction manuals that demand a correspondingly high degree of linguistic proficiency. Thus, students studying computer science need access to subject-specific English for both immediate usage and long-term career development. Due to these constant changes and rapid advancements in the technology sector, it was essential to conduct research on the current needs of the ICT industry. It is essential for graduates and professionals in the ICT industry to be able to communicate fluently with teams working in the same field but located in different parts of the world. This can be in the form of written manuals or conversation. The purpose of this study was to interrogate the contemporary English language demands for the ICT industry and the necessary proficiency required of undergraduate ICT majors. The theoretical underpinning of this research was the Material Design Model proposed by Hutchinson and Waters (1). A mixed-methods research approach was used. The total number of participants that took part were 170 (N = 170), thus that is what the sample size was based on. Using convenience sampling, a sample size of 118 was drawn. The results indicated that ICT students often lacked skills in essay writing. The students’ lack of technical language skills seriously weakens the strength of their scientific argument. Students are recommended to attend subject-specific language courses in order to prepare for their present academic and future professional language demands. The study indicated that the existing curriculum for computer science students does not adequately prepare them for the kinds of work that would be available to them in the ICT sector. The study recommends utilizing education support professionals (ESP) professionals to teach English in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses, with a focus on using examples from specialized journals, magazines, and blog channels. The study concludes by suggesting that instructors of computer science language be incentivized to increase their usage of specialized scholarly terminology in their classrooms.
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    An investigation on the efficacy of computer-assisted language learning in enhancing writing comprehension: A case study of Westside High School in Swakopmund
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2023-04) Salom, Susana Ndapewa
    This study provides a review on the need to incorporate Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in continuous teaching and learning using in order to enhance writing abilities of students/learners. The study also further argues for the need for consideration of the use of technology in second language (L2) instruction in secondary schools in Namibia. Learning to recognise and use the proper vocabulary is an important part of writing, as it affects consistency between paragraphs and essay writing. CALL has been argued to possess the potential to help improve the writing skills of learners. The study thus interrogates the extent to which CALL can be successful in this. It thus, demonstrates how the amount of research being done in various fields of education has grown in sync with technological advancements and highlights significant variations between the primary and secondary sectors' use of computers and their applications. An extensive analysis of pertinent studies delving into the effectiveness of the use of technology in the teaching of L2 English is then presented. The study interrogates further the nature of technology that has been utilised and the purposes for which it was used, the proof there is such technology that supports language learning, and other conclusions that can be derived from t such an analysis. The study adopted a mixed-methods approach that combined qualitative and quantitative methods in an explanatory research design. Purposive sampling was used to select two English language learners for interviews, and random simple sampling was used to choose 40 students to complete a questionnaire. The results demonstrate that, while there is little and inconclusive evidence that technology has a good impact on linguistic outcomes, it may have an indirect and positive influence on students’ attitudes and behavior and even foster collaboration. The study concludes by suggesting that future studies should establish a more direct connection between technological applications, Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory, and learning results.
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    Schematizing societal problems in Namibian novels: The cases of The Other Presence and The Hopeless Hopes
    (Journal of Communication and Cultural Trends, 2022) Hafeni, Linus Nghilifavali; Woldemariam, Haileleul Zeleke
    The current research presents a cognitive stylistics study of two Namibian novels: Francis Sifiso Nyathi’s The Other Presence and Salom Shilongo’s The Hopeless Hopes. These novels were selected because they present societal problems specific to Namibia from two different perspectives. The study also argues that only a few such Namibian novels have been investigated via conceptualising cognitive stylistics. The researchers have raised three fundamental questions: How does cognitive metaphor help explicate psychological hitches as captured creatively in the two novels? What is the mind’s contribution in conceptualising and comprehending contextual meanings in the two novels? How does content schema contribute to the understanding of the two novels? It is, therefore, against the backdrop of these three questions that the two novels were purposefully selected and studied. Conceptualising and implementing the cognitive metaphor, the current study also analyses the root causes of societal problems, such as unemployment, unfair treatment of people, HIV/AIDS, and witchcrafts, prevailing in the Namibian social fabric. In The Other Presence, it is the HIV/AIDS which is referred to as the other presence. Shilongo’s The Hopeless Hopes also reveals how Robert and the other fellow Namibian ex-combatants gathered at a Big House in Windhoek to hand over their petition to Honourable Zopa. It indicates clearly that the State House is being contextualised as a Big House in the novel, while the ‘Founding Father’ and the former president of the country Honourable Sam Nuyoma is referred to as Honourable Zopa. The contextual meaning of the selected novels can thus only be understood if the readers of these novels have a general background knowledge of the Namibian society. Within a cognitive stylistics theoretical framework, the study also follows a schema theory to explain mental problems and contextual meanings. It manifests how a cognitive stylistics approach to Namibian novels can advance the literary understanding of the multiplicities of themes, such as culture, taboo, superstition, unemployment, colonialism, corruption, and mental health.
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    A corpus linguistics study of English in written essays by third-year students in the Department of Wildlife Management and Ecotourism at the University of Namibia Katima Mulilo Campus
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2022-11-18) Siloka, Kahimbi
    This study sought to investigate the influence of nativisation in the written essays by third-year students in the Department of Wildlife Management and Ecotourism at University of Namibia (UNAM) Katima Mulilo Campus. The study population comprised of 15 students, from which a sample of 14 students was drawn. The research identified and examined words that are nativised by the third-year students, examining their frequency of occurrence, the structures of sentence patterns and other grammatical patterns. A mixed research methodology was adopted in the analysis of the word frequencies, structures of sentence patterns and grammatical patterns. The results from the enquiry indicate that a total of 2290 words were nativised by the students. The structures of sentence patterns also evinced that students used five structures of syntactic patterns in their writings, while their patterns of grammar were more phrasal, with noun phrases being the most frequently preferred phrase structure followed by prepositional phrases. It is envisaged that the findings from this study will help facilitate the teaching of English to the students in the Department of Wildlife Management and Ecotourism at Katima Mulilo UNAM Campus. On the basis of these results, recommendations for further research have been suggested. Pedagogical implications to assist language lecturers in assisting students develop proficiency in the English language have also been proposed.
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    Exploring the current English language needs of medical students in the School of Medicine at Hage Geingob UNAM campus
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2022-10) Kalola, Eben Ezer
    The goal of this study was to examine the English language needs of medical students at the Hage Geingob UNAM campus. The English language is crucial in the medical field because it helps doctors be able to interact with patients and colleagues whose first language is not English. In many situations, medical professionals in Namibia communicate with their patients in English. They also frequently deal with papers that are written in English. The English spoken in the workplace and the English spoken by university students are mismatched. The medical students' linguistic needs are not met by the English for Academic Purpose module that is currently available, and even the School of Medicine is now revising its undergraduate curriculum in order to include a medical language module. As a result, the results of this study will assist the School of Medicine in developing a medical language course, ideally in English for Medical Purpose, that especially addresses the linguistic needs of medical students. The objectives of the study were to explore the communication challenges encountered by medical students; analyse the English language needs of medical students during the period of their studies (onset situation) and investigate the English language needs of medical doctors in their professional careers (target situation). The study notes that medical students experience communication challenges in their studies and also during practicals at the hospital. Additionally, the study observes that medical students need language skills with an emphasis on medical linguistics. The study also submits that medical doctors are faced with communication challenges and limited medical vocabulary. The study recommends that an English for Medical Purposes course should be offered to medical students and that it should focus on language skills with the incorporation of medical terminologies and medical scenarios to help the students excel in the medical industry.
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    A contrastive linguistic analysis of the essays of Oshindonga speaking grade 9 learners of Jan Möhr Secondary School
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2022-09) Nghinanhongo, Klaudia Namutenya
    Using the Contrastive Analysis Theory of language, the study sought to analyse Grade 9 Oshindonga L1 learners’ essays, written in English, at Jan Möhr Secondary School (Windhoek, Namibia) and to compare the writing/pronunciation systems, punctuation and noun formation processes of the two languages with the ultimate goal of examining causes of errors made by Oshindonga learners in their English essays. Systematically comparing the structures of English and Oshindonga can be a good avenue to identify the areas of difficulty that English as a Second Language may present to Oshindonga L1 learners when they write essays in English. Employing the qualitative research method design to collect data, the study identified multiple word choice errors, word formation errors and spelling errors in written essays in English by the Grade 9 Oshindonga L1 learners, which were established to culminate from L1 interference. The selection of the appropriate words to use when writing in English was observed to be difficult for the learners because such decisions are frequently based on L1 knowledge, which is frequently, partially or completely contradictory to L2 knowledge. The study found that a majority of Grade 9 Oshindonga L1 learners have difficulties with the spelling English words. The study revealed that the errors made by learners in their English essays are attributed to the following factors: inter-lingual interference, intra-lingual inference, limited knowledge of English grammar and vocabulary, carelessness and over-generalisation.
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    A pedagogical stylistic evaluation of literature studies at Onawa Senior Secondary School, Omusati Region
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2021-11) Fillemon, Eliakim Mandume
    This study examined the difficulties, importance, and methods of pedagogical stylistics in literature teaching and learning. The goals of this study were to assess the linguistic difficulties that arise when learning literature in an ESL environment, to determine the linguistic significance of literature in an ESL context, and to evaluate the linguistic approaches that can be used to address some of the difficult linguistic issues encountered when learning ESL literature at the senior secondary level in Namibia. Data collection techniques that were qualitative and quantitative were employed. The interpretative paradigm served as the study's intellectual foundation because it used the pragmatic technique as its methodology. To further emphasise their significance in teaching and learning through pedagogical stylistics, the study was supported by a variety of techniques for the analysis and interpretation of the data that were gathered. The investigation was conducted in the Omusati region at a secondary school. At Onawa Secondary School, the study's sample included 950 students and 5 ESL instructors. The individuals were purposefully chosen via random convenient sampling. Four teachers who were in charge of instructing literary studies to students in grades 10 through 12 at Onawa Secondary School made up the sample sizes for this study. Using a simple random sampling approach, 30 students (from Grades 10, 11, and 12) were selected for sampling. Teachers were interviewed using the interview guide and students who received the test item as questionnaires were given to collect data, and selected texts used for analysis were also used. After coding the data, the researcher searched for overarching concepts that manifested themes, tables, and patterns. According to the objectives, the data's findings show that there is not a cohesive approach to teaching and studying literature at all. For teaching literature prescribed texts that are not matched to any style forms, L2 teachers lack some pedagogical stylistics skills. Although there is evidence that literature is important for students' linguistic and academic development, literal texts are presented in a way that is not consistent with pedagogical, semantic, pragmatic, feminist, or other literal device approaches. In essence, the study finds that the significance of literal text selections to types of stylistic approaches of analysis—which L2 teachers are intended to reinforce during teaching and learning of literature texts chosen—were misaligned in the curriculum and syllabus. As a result, the curriculum was created without the most helpful suggestions from ESL teachers. Furthermore, neither the curriculum nor the scheme of work specifies the genres to be emphasised in literary studies, and some genre writings are not officially permitted or included in the language policy.
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    An investigation on the effects of translanguaging practices in a grade 11 bilingual classroom: a case of Kaupumhote Nghituwamhata combined school
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2022-02) Hashoongo, Maria
    This study sought to investigate the effects of translanguaging practices in a Grade 11 bilingual classroom: a case of Kaupumhote Nghituwamhata Combined School. There were three specific objectives that guided this study, firstly to examine the causes of translanguaging practices, secondly, to identify the effects of translanguaging, and thirdly to establish when to translanguage during lessons in order to benefit from the phenomenon. The significance of the study was to create awareness about the causes, pros and cons, and when to use translanguage to help both teachers and learners to manage the language conflict between their first and second language. The study employed translanguaging theory by the main theorist, William (2006) to answer all the research objectives. Translanguaging is both a practice and a process—a dynamic and functionally integrated use of several languages and language varieties, but more importantly, a knowledge building process that extends beyond language(s). It pulls us away from system and speaker linguistics and toward linguistics of participation (Wei, 2017). The sample comprised of six teachers from a population of 30 and in-depth interviews were conducted, while all 42 learners were administered through participant observations. The study used a qualitative research approach, because it sought to discover the learners' and teachers’ perceptions, opinions, and feelings about translanguaging practice in a bilingual classroom. Two instruments for data collection were used namely, in- depth interviews and participant observations. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis, as well as interpretative methodologies, such as interpretative phenomenological analysis. The results of the study discovered that teachers translanguage when they are teaching vocabulary, terminologies, and complex sentences to the learners and translanguaging helps learners to understand difficult educational texts and contents. The following recommendations were made to help the Grade 11 learners at Kaupumhote Nghituwamhata to perform well in English Second language. Translanguaging should not be banned from schools, because it helps learners who struggle to comprehend the subject content and also know some sets of vocabulary. Furthermore, translanguaging should be used when necessary, especially when explaining difficult words or terminologies, but should only be done when all meanings of explanations are exhausted.
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    An interlanguage pragmatics investigation of lecturer and student interactions in the Department of Informatics at the Namibia University of Science and Technology
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2022-07-22) Mutandi, Future
    Requests and refusals are the most frequent speech acts in communication and is the reason why so much study has been focused on them in different contexts. In interlanguage pragmatics study, requests and refusals remain a great focus of attention as they have a bearing on the success or failure in cross-cultural communicative processes. The present study sought to analyse the strategies utilised by the students when formulating requests and refusals as they engaged with their lecturers at the Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST) using the interlanguage pragmatics theoretical framework. Of utmost importance, the study sought to dig deeper and accentuate adverse conditions for interlanguage pragmatics competence. Two Written Discourse Completion Tests (WDCTs) were administered to a study sample of 63 second year students from the Department of Informatics at NUST to elicit for data relating to strategies utilised by the students in the production of requests and refusals. A comprehensive questionnaire was also administered to the 63 second year students to collect data on the adverse conditions to interlanguage pragmatics competence. The study sample of 63 second year students was obtained by utilizing the Systematic Random Selection to a study population of 75 students. The elicited data revealed that interlanguage pragmatics’ failure or miscommunication is happening in the Department of Informatics at NUST due to the utilisation of direct requests. Students also apply blunt and negation of proposal to refusals when they engage with their supervisors. Moreover, the questionnaire establishes that the transfer concept and limitation to effective input environment could be contributing to interlanguage pragmatic competence problems to the students. Cultural concerns could also be linked to the limitations in pragma-linguistic and socio-pragmatic knowledge in the students.
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    Language and gender in My Heart in Your Hands: Poems from Namibia: A feminist stylistic approach
    (Namibia University of Science and Technology, 2022-07-21) Ashimbuli, Naemi Ligola
    This thesis provides a feminist stylistic analysis of fifteen (15) selected poems: Mother by Bronwen A Beukes, There’s depth in mother’s strength by Anne-Marrie Issa Brown Garises, Unconditional Love (a letter to my mother) by Gloria Ndilula What’s wrong? By Saara Kadhikwa, Stir not my dear one by Anneli Nghikembua, You broke me, Daddy by Jane Mungabwa, Domestic worker by Ina-Maria Shikongo, Dear perpetrator by Tulipomwene Kalunduka, Violence by Kina Indongo, Let me be by Saara Kalumbu, It never happened by Veripuami Nandeekua Kangumine, Perm blues by Maria-Oo Haihambo, Hail to the queen by Zemha Gawachas, Darkness by Tuli Phoenix, and This is not a Poem by Omaano Itana, from one anthology titled : My Heart In Your Hands: Poems from Namibia. The purpose of conducting this study was to examine language and gender in My Heart In Your Hands: Poems from Namibia from a feminist stylistics perspective. The research sought to achieve the following objectives: To examine how lexis is used to represent women in the selected poems; to analyse how syntax is used to show roles of women in the society and to evaluate how gender issues are communicated at discourse level. The female poets disclosed the subjugation of women by the patriarchal system. Women characters were represented as second to men, wicked, weak and victims of sexual, verbal and physical abuse at the hand of their loved ones. In the poems, women are represented as emotional, and worthless. Furthermore, the poets used linguistic devices to show the roles of women in the society. Women are portrayed as domestic workers, care takers, and child bearers. They are given household duties as their roles throughout the selected poems. Finally, the poets used discourse level to communicate the gender issues faced by women such as oppression, discrimination, exploitation and they are voiceless as men shut them through abuse when they speak up. The study concluded that women writers/poets of the selected poems used language to represent women in the negative way and give them the stereotyped roles based on their gender and brought gender issues faced by women through discourse and feminist stylistics approach was successful in bringing these presentations to light.